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    • Chebyshev Filter

      Chebyshev Filter

      A Chebyshev filter can either be analog or digital, and is an improvement on the Butterworth filter as it has a steeper roll-off and a greater passband and stopband ripple. These filters minimize overall error between actual and idealized filter characteristics for the designed range of the filter. The filter was named after Pafnuty Chebyshev,

    • Metal Detector

      Metal Detector

      A metal detector uses an electromagnetic field to detect the presence of a concealed metal object. The range depends on the strength of the field, and is usually less than one meter from the search head. The three detection methods are beat frequency oscillation, very low frequency, and pulse induction. Metal detectors were first introduced

    • RFID Skimmer

      RFID Skimmer

      Radio-Frequency Identifier (RFID) technology has become really popular because of the various advantages it comes with. However,   such as passports, national identity cards, credit cards etc have become a serious security concern. Two electrical engineering students (Ilan Kirschenbaum and Avishai Wool) from Tel Aviv University wrote a paper titled "How to Build a Low-Cost,

    • How to Test a Capacitor

      How to Test a Capacitor

      A capacitor is used to store energy so that it can provide power to any kind of electrical appliance when it is needed. Over time, though, the capacitor does begin to wear out and when this happens, its effectiveness in powering the appliance can diminish. Therefore, conducting a simple test on the capacitor can provide

    • What is an Isolation Transformer?

      What is an Isolation Transformer?

      An isolation transformer is made of two copper coils that are wound around each other and are each supplied by their own power source. While the term “isolation transformer” technically refers to any transformer, it is specifically a transformer that isolates a circuit from an alternating current. An isolation transformer does this by separating two

    • Azimuth

      Azimuth

      Azimuth is a measurement at an angle used in the spherical coordinate system. To find a point of interest, the observer creates a vector that is then projected in a perpendicular fashion onto a reference plane. The resulting angle between the projected vector and the reference vector located on the reference plane is the azimuth.

    • Modulation

      Modulation

      Modulation is the process of varying some characteristic of a periodic wave with external signals. Modulation is utilized to send an information bearing signal over long distances. Radio communication superimposes this information bearing signal onto a carrier signal. These high frequency carrier signals can be transmitted over the air easily and are capable of traveling

    • Car Radio Security Code

      Car Radio Security Code

      In order to deter theft, the majority of major automobile manufacturers implement a car radio security code. When the car stereo is removed from a vehicle, the device will not be usable until the unlock or security code is entered by the car owner or authorized repair facility. Unfortunately, some models of cars and trucks

    • GMSK (Gaussian Minimum Shift Keying)

      GMSK (Gaussian Minimum Shift Keying)

      MSK (Minimum Shift Keying) is a type of continuous frequency shift modulation that is used to transfer radio signals from satellites and radio broadcasting to mobile devices and vice versa. Unlike other forms of frequency modulation, MSK produces a half sine wave that limits problems associated with non-linear distortion. What is GMSK? GMSK (Gaussian Minimum

    • Transponder

      Transponder

      A transponder is an automatic electronic monitoring or control device that receives, cross-examines, amplifies and retransmits the arriving signal. It is primarily implemented in wireless communication. The word ‘Transponder’ itself is a combination of two words; transmitter and responder (occasionally abbreviated to TPDR, TR, XPNDR, and XPDR). A transponder works by receiving a signal on

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