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    • Butterworth Filter

      Butterworth Filter

      A Butterworth filter is a signal processing filter that has an extremely flat frequency response in the passband. It is referred to as a maximally flat magnitude filter and is commonly used in both analog and digital audio crossover filters in home, commercial, and car stereo systems. Who Invented the Butterworth Filter? British engineer, Stephen

    • How to Install a Car Audio System

      How to Install a Car Audio System

      Those on a tight budget and would like to save possibly hundreds of dollars on installation costs and those who would like to customize their car audio system may want to install the car audio system themselves. Whatever the reason, it is quite easy to install a car audio system and here are some tips.

    • Medium Earth Orbit

      Medium Earth Orbit

      Medium Earth Orbit (MEO) refers to a satellite which orbits the earth at an altitude below 22,300 miles (geostationary orbit) and above the altitude of Low Earth Orbit (LEO) satellites. Medium Earth Orbit represents a series of tradeoffs between geostationary orbit (GEO) and Low Earth Orbit (LEO). Medium Earth Orbit enables a satellite provider to

    • BNC Connector

      BNC Connector

      More properly known as the Bayonet Neill-Concelman connector, the BNC connector is one of several radio frequency connectors on the market today. The name of the connector is derived from a combination of two things: 1) the connecting technology employed; and 2) the names of the two inventors of the device. Paul Neill of Bell

    • IC Design

      IC Design

      In the modern world of data and information, computer systems need circuits that are able to process and transfer that information. Because of this, a great deal of resources and innovation go into creating more advanced circuitry in order to increase data transfer rates and make computer systems smaller. This article will demonstrate how integrated

    • Retrograde Orbit

      Retrograde Orbit

      A retrograde orbit is an orbit where the satellite travels in an East to West direction instead of the common West to East orbit. The normal West to East orbits are known as prograde orbits. Retrograde orbits are uncommon due to the much higher velocities necessary for successful launch and the associated higher costs. During

    • Battery Isolators

      Battery Isolators

      A battery isolator is used to prevent primary battery systems from being drained and are mostly used in car stereo systems. These devices cause a secondary/auxiliary battery to be drained instead of the vehicle’s primary battery. This is so whether the stereo is used when the engine is turned off or if an after-market stereo

    • What is a PID Controller?

      What is a PID Controller?

      A PID (Proportional Integral Derivative) controller is a device that makes changes to a system based on current and intended settings. PID controllers are used in a wide variety of industrial control systems and are the most commonly used feedback controllers in the world. PID controllers allow users to obtain and/or maintain preferred conditions within

    • BGA (Ball Grid Array)

      BGA (Ball Grid Array)

      BGA (Ball Grid Array) is one type of packaging for surface-mounted integrated electronic circuits (integrated circuits whose components are actually ‘mounted’ or affixed on the surface of the printed circuit semiconductor board). A BGA package simply looks like a thin wafer of semi-conducting material that has circuit components on only one face. The Ball Grid

    • Relay


      A relay is a remote switch controlled by current, magnetism, or temperature. The relay was invented in 1835 by Joseph Henry (1979-1878), an American scientist. Relays are a common component in many devices, and there are many different types of relays. Relay Types The two main types of relay are electromechanical and solid-state. Electromechanical relays

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