• ## QPSK (Quadrature Phase Shift Keying)

QPSK (Quadrature Phase Shift Keying) is a phase modulation algorithm. Phase modulation is a frequency modulation version where the carrier wave’s phase is modulated to encode bits of digital information in each phase change. The “PSK” in QPSK refers to the use of Phased Shift Keying. Phased Shift Keying is a form of phase modulation

• ## How Sunspots Affect Radio Reception

In order to understand how sunspots effect radio reception, you need to understand that the light waves and radio waves that the sun emits are both categorized as electromagnetic (EM) radiation. While light waves are visible to the human eye, they are still electromagnetic waves that oscillate. There are many electro magnetic waves, some oscillate

• ## Reed-Solomon

Reed-Solomon is an algorithm for Forward Error Correction (FEC). Reed-Solomon was introduced by Irving S. Reed and Gustave Solomon of MIT Labs in Polynomial Codes Over Certain Finite Fields, which was published in the Journal of the Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics in 1960. Reed-Solomon does not specify a block size or a specific

• ## Baseband

Generally, a transmission signal contains more than a single frequency. This is to say that there might be several different frequencies linked together or else superimposed on each other. This is just the way all telecommunication systems function. For example, with today's communication technology it is virtually impossible to send low frequencies without experiencing any

• ## Wire Gauge

The term wire gauge refers to a measurement of what the diameter of a wire is. This measure can then be used to determine what the electrical resistance, weight per unit of length, and the amount of current that can safely be carried by the wire. There are two internationally accepted measures for wire gauge,

• ## BGA (Ball Grid Array)

BGA (Ball Grid Array) is one type of packaging for surface-mounted integrated electronic circuits (integrated circuits whose components are actually ‘mounted’ or affixed on the surface of the printed circuit semiconductor board). A BGA package simply looks like a thin wafer of semi-conducting material that has circuit components on only one face. The Ball Grid

• ## Forward Error Correction (FEC)

Forward Error Correction (FEC) is a type of error correction that involves encoding a message in a redundant way, which allows the receiver to reconstruct lost bits without the need for retransmission. How Forward Error Correction Works FEC works by adding “check bits” to the outgoing data stream. Adding more check bits reduces the amount

• ## Ground Loop Isolator

A ground loop isolator prevents interference in a ground loop circuit. A ground loop circuit is one in which two or more circuits are connected to the same ground wire. Ideally, all circuits in a ground loop circuit have the same voltage potential. However, if the ground wire has significant resistance and current, the voltage

• ## What is a MOSFET?

A MOSFET (Metal Oxide Semiconductor Field Effect Transistor) is a device that switches or amplifies an electronic signal. MOSFET technology has made computers much smaller and more efficient than they once were by handling large amounts of electricity in very small spaces. MOSFETs are also crucial for both digital and analog signals and are found

• ## Ultrasonic Sensors

An ultrasonic sensor is a device that works in much the same way as RADAR and SONAR. In fact, ultrasonic sensors mimic bats and other animals’ natural ability to use ultrasonic frequencies for navigation. Ultrasonic sensors broadcast a powerful, ultrasonic frequency, then detect the ultrasonic sound waves as they bounce off of objects and return

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