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    • BJT Transistors

      BJT Transistors

      Basic diodes are constructed from two semiconductor materials, germanium or silicon, to create a basic PN-junction. When two single diodes are connected to each other back-to-back, two PN-junctions that are connected in series are created. They share a common N or P terminal, which forms the basis of a BJT or Bipolar Junction Transistor. The

    • Relay


      A relay is a remote switch controlled by current, magnetism, or temperature. The relay was invented in 1835 by Joseph Henry (1979-1878), an American scientist. Relays are a common component in many devices, and there are many different types of relays. Relay Types The two main types of relay are electromechanical and solid-state. Electromechanical relays

    • Solid State Relays

      Solid State Relays

      A solid state relay is a device that controls voltage to allow or prevent a voltage or current from passing through a circuit without using any moving parts. Solid state relays are commonly found in control systems that use large amounts of power and must be switched on and off on a regular basis. Solid

    • The SMA Connector

      The SMA Connector

      The SMA (SubMiniature Type A) connector is a type of the radio frequency connector developed in the 1960s to make it easier to connect coaxial cables. Using a screw-type design instead of the common ‘push-pull’ system, the SMA connector allows for a quick connection; and can be used in both alternating and direct current applications.

    • How Satellite Images Are Made

      How Satellite Images Are Made

      Satellite images are taken by reconnaissance satellites that orbit the Earth at a relatively low altitude, between 300 to 600 miles (or 480 to 970 km). As the majority of today's satellites are custom made in order to accommodate particular needs of the designer, there is no standard on which photo imagery is based on

    • What is a Momentary Switch?

      What is a Momentary Switch?

      A common question asked by new student of electronics is what is a momentary switch? The short answer is that a momentary switch is a unit capable of turning any electronic device to either an on or off state when an end-user presses the switch. This type of switch can actually represent one of two

    • Downlink


      Downlink is a term in telecommunications that is used to refer to a data transmission in which data flows from an orbital satellite receiver to a ground-based transmitter. Downlink transmissions rely on the C Band between 3.7 and 4.2 GHz, the Ku Band between 11.7 and 12.7 GHz, and the Ka Band between 18.3 and

    • What is an Isolation Transformer?

      What is an Isolation Transformer?

      An isolation transformer is made of two copper coils that are wound around each other and are each supplied by their own power source. While the term “isolation transformer” technically refers to any transformer, it is specifically a transformer that isolates a circuit from an alternating current. An isolation transformer does this by separating two

    • Attic Antennas

      Attic Antennas

      An attic antenna is one that is mounted inside of an attic in order to provide maximum range as well as protection from rain, snow, sun, wind, and animals. Attic antennas are rather common and provide quality reception for those who live in rural areas, away from most radio transmitters. While attic antennas do not

    • Opto Isolator

      Opto Isolator

      An opto isolator is an electronic device that prevents high voltages from components in one side of a circuit from damaging or interfering with components on the other side of the same circuit. Opto isolators regulate voltage levels by converting electricity into a beam of light. This prevents voltage spikes from impacting more than a single

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