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    • Geostationary Satellite

      Geostationary Satellite

      Geostationary satellites are located exactly above the earth’s equator and revolve around the earth in a circular orbit. Their revolving speed and direction (west to east) are exactly same as that of the earth, which makes it look stationary from the earth’s surface. The exact altitude of these satellites above the equator is approximately 36,000

    • GMSK (Gaussian Minimum Shift Keying)

      GMSK (Gaussian Minimum Shift Keying)

      MSK (Minimum Shift Keying) is a type of continuous frequency shift modulation that is used to transfer radio signals from satellites and radio broadcasting to mobile devices and vice versa. Unlike other forms of frequency modulation, MSK produces a half sine wave that limits problems associated with non-linear distortion. What is GMSK? GMSK (Gaussian Minimum

    • Multimeter


      A multimeter combines several electrical meters into one hand-held unit. Basic multimeter models measure voltage, current, and resistance. Advanced models also measure temperature, inductance, capacitance, duty cycle, and frequency. They can also test diodes and transistors. Some even work as an oscilloscope. The two main types of multimeters are digital and analogue. Parts of a

    • Integrated Circuit

      Integrated Circuit

      An integrated circuit (IC), also called a microchip, is an electronic circuit etched onto a silicon chip. Their main advantages are low cost, low power, high performance, and very small size. History The integrated circuit was invented in 1958 by Jack Kirby (1923-2005), an American engineer. In 2000, he won the Nobel prize in physics

    • Crosstalk


      Crosstalk is a form of interference caused by signals in nearby conductors. The most common example is hearing an unwanted conversation on the telephone. Crosstalk can also occur in radios, televisions, networking equipment, and even electric guitars. Causes of Crosstalk Crosstalk is caused by coupling, the transfer of electrical energy between conductors. The three main

    • What is a PID Controller?

      What is a PID Controller?

      A PID (Proportional Integral Derivative) controller is a device that makes changes to a system based on current and intended settings. PID controllers are used in a wide variety of industrial control systems and are the most commonly used feedback controllers in the world. PID controllers allow users to obtain and/or maintain preferred conditions within

    • Relay


      A relay is a remote switch controlled by current, magnetism, or temperature. The relay was invented in 1835 by Joseph Henry (1979-1878), an American scientist. Relays are a common component in many devices, and there are many different types of relays. Relay Types The two main types of relay are electromechanical and solid-state. Electromechanical relays

    • Rainfade


      Rainfade refers to a phenomenon that occurs during strong rain or snowfall in which satellite signals are prevented from reaching their destination. Rainfade may also refer to extensive cloud cover, strong winds, or any other environmental effect that distorts a satellite broadcast, but is most often observed during rainfall. Rainfade may also refer to the

    • Capacitive Reactance

      Capacitive Reactance

      Capacitive reactance is a term used to describe an effect in capacitors that causes the capacitor’s resistance to change depending on changes in the electric field passing through it. Capacitive reactance is similar to resistance in that it can allow or block varying amounts of voltage in a circuit, but is different because it is

    • What is VSWR?

      What is VSWR?

      VSWR (Voltage Standing Wave Ratio) is a metric commonly used with antenna systems for ham or shortwave radio communication. VSWR is normally defined as a ratio with a 1:1 VSWR, indicating that there is an exact or perfect match between all antenna system elements. The VSWR can also be expressed by comparing Vmax with Vmin

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