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    • Transformer


      A transformer transfers electrical energy between two circuits. It usually consists of two wire coils wrapped around a core. These coils are called primary and secondary windings. Energy is transferred by mutual induction caused by a changing electromagnetic field. If the coils have different number of turns around the core, the voltage induced in the

    • What is a Decoupling Capacitor?

      What is a Decoupling Capacitor?

      A decoupling capacitor (bypass capacitor) is a device that separates current and voltage levels from two separate sections of the same electronic device. Decoupling capacitors are useful in situations that require an electronic device to fluctuate current or voltage levels without straining the power supply. Decoupling capacitors can be used in electronic devices that have

    • Amplitude Modulation

      Amplitude Modulation

      Amplitude modulation is a type of modulation where the carrier signal’s amplitude is varied in accordance with the information bearing signal. The amplitude modulated signal’s envelope or boundary embeds the information bearing signal. The total power of the transmitted signal varies with the modulating signal, whereas the carrier power remains constant. A nonlinear device combines

    • How Satellite Images Are Made

      How Satellite Images Are Made

      Satellite images are taken by reconnaissance satellites that orbit the Earth at a relatively low altitude, between 300 to 600 miles (or 480 to 970 km). As the majority of today's satellites are custom made in order to accommodate particular needs of the designer, there is no standard on which photo imagery is based on

    • FRS (Family Radio Service)

      FRS (Family Radio Service)

      FRS (Family Radio Service) is an unlicensed service. FRS (Family Radio Service) consists of 14 UHF channels on FM. FRS Channel 1 is unofficially used as a common call channel. FRS (Family Radio Service) shares channels 1 through 7 with GMRS, and many FRS radios are also GMRS radios. The maximum allowable power for a

    • Integrated Circuit

      Integrated Circuit

      An integrated circuit (IC), also called a microchip, is an electronic circuit etched onto a silicon chip. Their main advantages are low cost, low power, high performance, and very small size. History The integrated circuit was invented in 1958 by Jack Kirby (1923-2005), an American engineer. In 2000, he won the Nobel prize in physics

    • What is an Astable Multivibrator?

      What is an Astable Multivibrator?

      A multivibrator is a device that switches between two states. It is a type of oscillator and can be used as a trigger, converter, moderator, or divider. It usually produces changes in a system at timed intervals, depending on the number and placement of resistors and other elements within the system as well as the

    • What is VSWR?

      What is VSWR?

      VSWR (Voltage Standing Wave Ratio) is a metric commonly used with antenna systems for ham or shortwave radio communication. VSWR is normally defined as a ratio with a 1:1 VSWR, indicating that there is an exact or perfect match between all antenna system elements. The VSWR can also be expressed by comparing Vmax with Vmin

    • Ham Radio Antenna Towers

      Ham Radio Antenna Towers

      A Ham radio antenna tower is usually a metal tower that hams use to support their antennas. There's also an interesting story behind birth of the terms Ham or amateur radio. The actual signification of the term 'ham' was lost but there are several theories that explain its provenience. For example some say it was

    • Transducer


      The broad definition of a transducer is a device that changes energy from one type into another. However, most transducers change between electricity and another energy type. Transducers also have other names depending on their usage such as probe, detector, pickup, sensor, gauge, and electrode. Chemical Transducers Acidity and alkalinity are measured using a pH

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