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    • Understanding Certificate Authorities

      Understanding Certificate Authorities

      An Overview on Certificate Authorities In the Public Key Infrastructure (PKI), digital certificates are based on public key cryptography. The PKI consists of a set of components, policies, protocols, and technologies that provide data authentication, integrity, and confidentiality through the use of certificates, and public and private keys. Data is protected by applying a hashing

    • Resolving ntdll.dll Errors

      Resolving ntdll.dll Errors

      The ntdll.dll file is a Microsoft dynamic link library file that contains the NT kernel functions for a computer running the Windows Operating System (OS). The file is normally found in the windowssystem32 or the winntsystem32 directories. Windows computer users may come across the “Unknown Hard Drive Ntdll.dll Error” message. A corrupted or damaged ntdll.dll

    • Understanding the Department of Defense Network Model

      Understanding the Department of Defense Network Model

      Department of Defense Network (DoD) Network Model Introduction Back in 1960, systems were primarily made up of mainframe computers, and were typically owned by fairly large companies and government institutions. Because mainframe computers run different proprietary software, and due to mainframes not being able to communicate between each other, special code (interface) had to be

    • Novell Netware and Windows Server

      Novell Netware and Windows Server

      Interoperating with Novell NetWare Windows Server 2003 includes a few specific services that enable Novell NetWare servers and clients, and Windows computer to interoperate: NWLink IPX/SPX/NetBIOS Compatible Transport Protocol (NWLink): NWLink IPX/SPX is the Microsoft implementation of Novell's NetWare Internetwork Packet Exchange/Sequenced Packet Exchange (IPX/SPX) protocol. NWLink IPX/SPX is simply called NWLink. NWLink is used

    • How to Unprotect an Excel Sheet

      How to Unprotect an Excel Sheet

      Unprotecting an Excel sheet is surprisingly easy. If your Excel sheet is password protected and you do not know the password, there is no way that you can unprotect the sheet in that particular workbook – but you can create a new workbook which will contain exactly the same formulas, formatting and values that will

    • Managing Exchange Server Mailboxes

      Managing Exchange Server Mailboxes

      Management Tools for Administering Exchange Server The Active Directory Users and Computers Management Console The Active Directory Users and Computers snap-in is extended to support the management of mailbox configurations and settings. The Active Directory Users and Computers management console is the central tool used for creating and managing user account and computer account objects

    • Configuring Proxy Server Arrays and Routes

      Configuring Proxy Server Arrays and Routes

      Proxy Server Arrays Overview Proxy Server provides a feature called proxy arrays. A proxy array is a solution whereby one or multiple proxy servers operate as a single cache for client requests. Each Proxy Server server that belongs to the proxy array performs the following functions: Maintains membership information for the proxy array. This information

    • Developing a Test Network

      Developing a Test Network

      Planning the Test Network Environment Any successful network design deployment includes a testing strategy, and the execution of the testing plan. To test the network design, you have to plan the test network or environment, and then create the test network. A testing environment can contain one lab or multiple labs. You can build various

    • Compile Error in Hidden Module

      Compile Error in Hidden Module

      When starting up Microsoft Word or Excel (or other Office products), the “Compile Error in Hidden Module” issue may arise. Starting up the program will prompt the error message to appear and display one of the following or a similar message:   Compile error in hidden module: AutoExec Compile error in hidden module: AutoExecNew Compile

    • No Audio Device

      No Audio Device

      The no audio device error is commonly encountered on the Windows operating system. The error is normally thrown when the end user upgrades a computing device to a newer version of Windows or after reinstalling the existing version of Windows. When the error is thrown, computer applications that require an audio device will not be

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