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  • Data Link Layer

    • ISDN (Integrated Services Digital Network)

      ISDN (Integrated Services Digital Network)

      ISDN (Integrated Services Digital Network) is a system of digital phone connections that has been designed for sending voice, video, and data simultaneously over digital or ordinary phone lines, with a much faster speed and higher quality than an analog system can provide. ISDN is basically a set of protocol for making and breaking circuit

    • Differences Between ISDN and DSL

      Differences Between ISDN and DSL

      Definitions Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN): ISDN is a digital transmission system, which is used to transmit voice and data through copper telephone wires. In other words, it's a circuit-switched data transmission system that is used for voice and data transmission over the wire. Digital Subscriber Line (DSL): DSL is also a digital transmission system

    • CSMA/CD

      CSMA/CD

      CSMA/CD (Carrier Sense Multiple Access / Collision Detection) is the protocol used in Ethernet networks to ensure that only one network node is transmitting on the network wire at any one time. Carrier Sense means that every Ethernet device listens to the Ethernet wire before it attempts to transmit. If the Ethernet device senses that

    • ISDN BRI

      ISDN BRI

      ISDN BRI (Basic Rate Interface) is a standard Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN) service meant for residential and small scale business Internet connections. There is another type of ISDN configuration called the Primary Rate Interface (PRI) that is designed to provide higher bandwidth. The BRI configuration defined in the physical layer standard I.430 produced by

    • EtherCAT

      EtherCAT

      EtherCAT stands for "Ethernet for Control Automation Technology." It is an open standard and high performance system that aims to use Ethernet protocols (the favored system for Local Area Networks) in an industrial environment, especially for factories and other manufacturing concerns which make use of robots and other assembly-line technologies. The outstanding and unique functional

    • Ethernet Cable Pinout

      Ethernet Cable Pinout

      Ethernet cable connects a network interface card (NIC) with a hub or Ethernet switch. Ethernet cables can be purchased from a computer store. They come in two categories, flat and braided. The flat or solid cable is used when there is a need for a longer cable run. However, it is not flexible. Thus, its

    • VDSL (Very High Bit-Rate Digital Subscriber Line)

      VDSL (Very High Bit-Rate Digital Subscriber Line)

      Broadband has revolutionized the way we view and use the internet. The two main types of broadband technology that have pervaded the market are Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line (ADSL) and cable modems. Both these technologies are a huge leap from the days of the 56 Kbps dial-up connections, with maximum speeds ranging between 8 to

    • ISDN Modem

      ISDN Modem

      ISDN – otherwise known as integrated services digital network – is a digital phone connection that can transmit data, voice and video over a normal telephone line. It was meant to be a method of transmitting information much faster than a typical analog phone; however, the phone industry was able to survive the arrival of

    • Ethernet Hub

      Ethernet Hub

      For any two devices to be connected, they need a common place, or a hub, as it is called in the computer world. It basically connects multiple computers together. Most of the hubs available in the market today support Ethernet standards. This is why they are called Ethernet hubs, and are most commonly used in

    • 802.1p

      802.1p

      802.1p is an IEEE standard that describes mechanisms to prioritize traffic and perform dynamic multicast filtering. Because of its support for priority specification, 802.1p is important for providing Quality of Service (QoS) for better reliability and quality. Quality of Service QoS is a mechanism that allows for better handling of data that passes over a

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