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  • Data Link Layer

    • MAC Addresses (Media Access Control)

      MAC Addresses (Media Access Control)

      A MAC address is an address that exists on Layer 2 of the OSI Model. Layer 2 of the OSI model is the Data Link Layer. The Data Link Layer consists of two sublayers, the Media Access Control (MAC) layer and the Logical Link Control (LLC) layer. The MAC sublayer controls how a network node

    • How to Change a MAC Address

      How to Change a MAC Address

      Every Ethernet card had a factory assigned MAC address burned into it when it was made. At times, users may want to change this MAC address to one of their choice. One of the main reasons for doing this is to get around access control lists(s) on a specific router or server, either by hiding

    • VLAN Hopping

      VLAN Hopping

      VLAN Hopping is one of the primary VLAN based attacks used by hackers to infiltrate network security. VLAN hopping is used to attack a network by sending packets to a port which is generally not accessible. VLAN hopping attacks are mainly conducted in the Dynamic Trunking Protocol and, in some cases; the attacks are targeted

    • Ethernet Switch

      Ethernet Switch

      A switch is something that is used to turn various electronic devices on or off. However, in computer networking, a switch is used to connect multiple computers with each other. Since it is an external device it becomes part of the hardware peripherals used in the operation of a computer system. This connection is done

    • VDSL (Very High Bit-Rate Digital Subscriber Line)

      VDSL (Very High Bit-Rate Digital Subscriber Line)

      Broadband has revolutionized the way we view and use the internet. The two main types of broadband technology that have pervaded the market are Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line (ADSL) and cable modems. Both these technologies are a huge leap from the days of the 56 Kbps dial-up connections, with maximum speeds ranging between 8 to

    • MTU (Maximum Transmission Unit)

      MTU (Maximum Transmission Unit)

      The MTU (Maximum Transmission Unit) is the size of the largest datagram that can be sent over a network. If a datagram is larger than an MTU, the datagram must be fragmented into multiple smaller datagrams. Default MTU Sizes Most network technologies have default MTU sizes which may be changed by the network administrator. Network

    • Symmetric DSL

      Symmetric DSL

      Symmetric Digital Subscriber Line (SDSL) is a kind of one kind of Digital Subscriber Line (DSL) used to provide high-speed Internet connectivity. Symmetric DSL is called “symmetrical” because the upstream and downstream connections have the same bandwidth. SDSL maintains the same high speed in both directions while working over the existing “twisted-pair” cables that exist

    • DSL vs Cable Modem

      DSL vs Cable Modem

      Two of the most popular technologies that offer speedy access to the World Wide Web are DSL broadband and the cable modem. There are several reasons why this is the case and the first one is that both of these Internet connections are considerably faster than the standard dialup connections. However, when you compare the

    • ADSL Modems

      ADSL Modems

      Description of ADSL A special Internet service which is available in many areas is called the Asymmetrical Digital Subscriber Line (ADSL). ADSL connections use existing copper telephone lines to transmit data to and from the ISP. These connections may be limited by proximity to the ISP or the telephone company because the data will lose strength through

    • ADSL Router

      ADSL Router

      An ADSL router is also known as a DSL modem. The router connects the computer to the DSL phone line so the ADSL service can be used. Some countries also use the term NTBBA (Network Termination BroadBand Access). There are some ADSL routers that are also capable of sharing a single Internet connection with a

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