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  • Data Link Layer

    • Ethernet

      Ethernet

      Ethernet is the most common LAN (Local Area Network) technology in use today. Xerox developed Ethernet in the 1970s, and became popular after Digital Equipment Corporation and Intel joined Xerox in developing the Ethernet standard in 1980. Ethernet was officially accepted as IEEE standard 802.3 in 1985. The term “Ethernet” is now used to refer

    • VDSL (Very High Bit-Rate Digital Subscriber Line)

      VDSL (Very High Bit-Rate Digital Subscriber Line)

      Broadband has revolutionized the way we view and use the internet. The two main types of broadband technology that have pervaded the market are Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line (ADSL) and cable modems. Both these technologies are a huge leap from the days of the 56 Kbps dial-up connections, with maximum speeds ranging between 8 to

    • DSL Splitter

      DSL Splitter

      A DSL splitter, like a DSL filter, is a device used to prevent interference problems. It filters the low frequencies of the telephone line from the high-frequency ADSL line. However, the installation of a DSL splitter requires the help of a technician to split the main telephone cable into 2 lines unlike a DSL filter

    • PPP (Point-to-Point Protocol)

      PPP (Point-to-Point Protocol)

      PPP (Point-to-Point Protocol) is the most widely used method for transporting IP packets over a serial link between the user and the Internet Service Provider (ISP). Although PPP is primarily used over dialup lines, variants such as PPoE (PPP over Ethernet) and PPoA (PPP over ATM) extend PPP to new data-link layer protocols. PPP was

    • ARP Cache

      ARP Cache

      The ARP cache is a table that stores mappings between Data Link Layer addresses and Network Layer addresses. The Data Link Layer addresses are usually MAC addresses and the Network Layer addresses are most frequently IP addresses. The Operating System stores the ARP cache in RAM. Displaying the ARP Cache Under most Unix and Microsoft

    • What is VDSL2?

      What is VDSL2?

      VDSL2 is an acronym which stands for Very High Bit Rate Digital Subscriber Line Generation 2. This is based on of the original Very High Bit Rate Digital Subscriber Line (VDSL) but runs on a different frequency (30 MHz) over 7 different bands to produce extremely high bandwidth capabilities. The service for VDSL2 is available

    • Proxy ARP

      Proxy ARP

      ARP (Address Resolution Protocol) is used by network systems to convert system communications from the routable layer 3 IP protocol to the non-routable layer 2 data link layer protocols. In most cases, you don’t need to modify this behavior at all, and system communications are optimal. In special circumstances it is preferable to have another

    • How to Clear the ARP Cache

      How to Clear the ARP Cache

      ARP (Address Resolution Protocol) Cache is a technique used to store “mappings” of  OSI Model Network Layer addresses (IP addresses) to corresponding OSI Model Data Link addresses (MAC addresses). Due to a variety of possible circumstances, ARP cache can become damaged requiring the end user or administrator to determine how to clear the ARP cache

    • DSL vs Cable Modem

      DSL vs Cable Modem

      Two of the most popular technologies that offer speedy access to the World Wide Web are DSL broadband and the cable modem. There are several reasons why this is the case and the first one is that both of these Internet connections are considerably faster than the standard dialup connections. However, when you compare the

    • CSMA/CD

      CSMA/CD

      CSMA/CD (Carrier Sense Multiple Access / Collision Detection) is the protocol used in Ethernet networks to ensure that only one network node is transmitting on the network wire at any one time. Carrier Sense means that every Ethernet device listens to the Ethernet wire before it attempts to transmit. If the Ethernet device senses that

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