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  • Network Layer

    • Broadcast Address

      Broadcast Address

      A broadcast address is an IP address that targets all systems on a specific subnet instead of single hosts. The broadcast address of any IP address can be calculated by taking the bit compliment of the subnet mask, sometimes referred to as the reverse mask, and then applying it with a bitwise OR calculation to

    • IP Address Classes

      IP Address Classes

      IP Address classes were the original organizational structure for IP addresses. The specific address class would determine the maximum potential size for a computer network. The address class would define which of the specific bits of the address would be used to identify the network and network identification, the bits to identify the host computer

    • ICMP (Internet Control Message Protocol)

      ICMP (Internet Control Message Protocol)

      ICMP is the Internet Control Message Protocol. ICMP is a complementary protocol to IP (Internet Protocol). Like IP, ICMP resides on the Network Layer of the OSI Model. ICMP is designed for sending control and test messages across IP networks. Unlike the Transport Layer protocols TCP (Transmission Control Protocol) and UDP (User Datagram Protocol) which

    • 192.168.1.1 – What Are its Uses and Why is it Important?

      192.168.1.1 – What Are its Uses and Why is it Important?

      The 192.168.1.1 IP address is a default commonly used by Linksys routers. Linksys is now a division of Cisco, Incorporated and makes a large number of the broadband routers used throughout the world. The address is not exclusive to Linksys, but most other major router manufacturers use different default addresses for configuration of home or

    • 192.168.1.245

      192.168.1.245

      Cisco is a leading manufacturer of networking devices such as modems, wireless routers, and network storage devices. Cisco products are sold worldwide to millions of consumers for both residential and commercial purposes. Cisco also markets a number of data plans for some of the largest Internet Service Providers in the world. What is 192.168.1.245? 192.168.1.245

    • What is NetBEUI?

      What is NetBEUI?

      NetBEUI (NetBIOS Extended User Interface) is an extended version of NetBIOS, the primary software that allows individual computers to communicate within a given local area network. While NetBIOS itself is most often used to transfer pictures, documents, videos, or other files from one computer to another, NetBEUI is responsible for arranging the actual information in

    • BOOTP

      BOOTP

      BOOTP is the Bootstrap Protocol. The BOOTP protocol is utilized by diskless workstations to gather configuration information from a network server. The information provided by the BOOTP protocol is: The IP address which should be utilized by the diskless workstation The IP address of a server which will provide an Operating System image for the

    • 192.168.2.1 – What Are its Uses and Why is it Important?

      192.168.2.1 – What Are its Uses and Why is it Important?

      192.168.2.1 is a private IP address commonly used by the SMC and Belkin router manufacturers for device setup and troubleshooting. SMC and Belkin specialize in manufacturing home networking equipment that competes with Netgear, D-Link, and Linksys brands in the marketplace. The Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) does not grant exclusive use of the IP address

    • 192.168.0.1 – What Are its Uses and Why is it Important?

      192.168.0.1 – What Are its Uses and Why is it Important?

      192.168.0.1 is a private IP address that is commonly used by Netgear and D-Link routers. The Netgear and D-Link brands are competitors to the Linksys division of Cisco, Incorporated and make a large number of the Internet routers used world-wide. The network address is not granted to the Netgear and D-Link companies exclusively; however, as

    • VRRP (Virtual Router Redundancy Protocol)

      VRRP (Virtual Router Redundancy Protocol)

      VRRP stands for Virtual Router Redundancy Protocol. The VRRP is a commonly used method to avoid network outages during important data transfers. Data transfer can be highly susceptible to failure when sent by a single router network. To combat this problem, VRRP creates a virtual connection between routers within the same network and ties them

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