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  • Network Layer

    • Subnet Masks

      Subnet Masks

      A subnet mask allows users to identify which part of an IP address is reserved for the network and which part is available for host use. By looking at the IP address alone, especially now with classless inter-domain routing, users cannot tell which part of the address is which. Adding the subnet mask or netmask

    • NAT (Network Address Translation)

      NAT (Network Address Translation)

      NAT (Network Address Translation) is a technique for preserving scarce Internet IP addresses. Why NAT? The current Internet uses IP addresses in the form xxx.xxx.xxx.xxx. A sample IP address might be 202.187.4.212. Because of the way these IP addresses are allocated, there started to be a shortage of available IP addresses. The current IP (Internet

    • 192.168.2.1 – What Are its Uses and Why is it Important?

      192.168.2.1 – What Are its Uses and Why is it Important?

      192.168.2.1 is a private IP address commonly used by the SMC and Belkin router manufacturers for device setup and troubleshooting. SMC and Belkin specialize in manufacturing home networking equipment that competes with Netgear, D-Link, and Linksys brands in the marketplace. The Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) does not grant exclusive use of the IP address

    • IP Address Conflict

      IP Address Conflict

      An IP (or Internet Protocol) address conflict occurs when two different systems on the same subnet are assigned or otherwise have their network interface configured to use the same IP address. It is possible to have two systems on different subnets configured with the same IP address, but not have a conflict occur due to

    • Subnetting

      Subnetting

      Subnetting is the process of breaking down an IP network into smaller sub-networks called “subnets.” Each subnet is a non-physical description (or ID) for a physical sub-network (usually a switched network of host containing a single router in a multi-router network). In many cases, subnets are created to serve as physical or geographical separations similar

    • Broadcast Address

      Broadcast Address

      A broadcast address is an IP address that targets all systems on a specific subnet instead of single hosts. The broadcast address of any IP address can be calculated by taking the bit compliment of the subnet mask, sometimes referred to as the reverse mask, and then applying it with a bitwise OR calculation to

    • DHCP Scope

      DHCP Scope

      A DHCP scope is a valid range of IP addresses that are available for assignment or lease to client computers on a particular subnet. In a DHCP server, a scope is configured to determine the address pool of IPs that the server can provide to DHCP clients. Scopes determine which IP addresses are provided to

    • Static Route

      Static Route

      A static route is one that a network administrator creates manually. The opposite of a static route is a dynamic route. Dynamic routes are created by routing protocols. Static routes have advantages and disadvantages when compared to dynamic routes. Advantages of Static Routes: Easy to configure No routing protocol overhead Disadvantages of Static Routes: Network

    • Routing Tables

      Routing Tables

      A routing table is a grouping of information stored on a networked computer or network router that includes a list of routes to various network destinations. The data is normally stored in a database table and in more advanced configurations includes performance metrics associated with the routes stored in the table. Additional information stored in

    • Network Routers

      Network Routers

      A network router is a network device with interfaces in multiple networks whose task is to copy packets from one network to another. Routers operate at Layer 3 of the OSI Model, the Network Layer. This is in contrast to switches, which operate at Layer 2 of the OSI Model, the Data-Link Layer. A network

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