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    • Physical Layer

      Physical Layer

      The Physical Layer is the lowest layer in the OSI (Open Systems Interconnection) Model of computer networking and is used to transfer electrical signals that represent data from one place to another. While the Physical Layer does not represent data itself, it does provide a means for that data to move. Essentially, the Physical Layer

    • What is a Rollover Cable?

      What is a Rollover Cable?

      A rollover cable is a network cable that connects a computer terminal to a network router’s console port. It is also referred to as a Cisco console cable and is normally flat and light blue so as to distinguish it from other network cable types. The pin-outs on one end of the cable are reversed

    • Understanding the IPX-SPX Protocol

      Understanding the IPX-SPX Protocol

      IPX/SPX is a protocol suite that is implemented on many corporate internetworks. IPX/SPX was developed to operate in Novell Netware in LAN environment. But today, the IPX/SPX is also used in Microsoft NT, Microsoft XP and Lotus Notes environment along with Vista. IPX/SPX on Cisco IOS The Cisco IOS also provides a wide range of

    • How to Perform a DNS Lookup

      How to Perform a DNS Lookup

      DNS, Domain Name System, is a complex hierarchical system which helps map Internet addresses with their respective machines over the World Wide Web. When a domain is created and hosted, a variety of information is linked with it. DNS Lookup is generally a process of digging out this related information for a specified domain name.

    • What is a Smart Antenna?

      What is a Smart Antenna?

      A smart antenna is one that transmits or receives multiple radio frequencies at once. Smart antennas increase data transfer rates and reduce errors by handling several copies of the same information. Conventional antenna systems consist of one antenna that serves as a transmitter and one that serves as a receiver. This is starting to change,

    • DSL vs Cable Modem

      DSL vs Cable Modem

      Two of the most popular technologies that offer speedy access to the World Wide Web are DSL broadband and the cable modem. There are several reasons why this is the case and the first one is that both of these Internet connections are considerably faster than the standard dialup connections. However, when you compare the

    • CSMA/CD

      CSMA/CD

      CSMA/CD (Carrier Sense Multiple Access / Collision Detection) is the protocol used in Ethernet networks to ensure that only one network node is transmitting on the network wire at any one time. Carrier Sense means that every Ethernet device listens to the Ethernet wire before it attempts to transmit. If the Ethernet device senses that

    • UDP (User Datagram Protocol)

      UDP (User Datagram Protocol)

      User Datagram Protocol or UDP is part of the Internet Protocol suite. By using UDP, programs running on different computers on a network can send short messages known as Datagrams to one another. UDP can be used in networks where TCP is traditionally implemented, but unlike TCP, it does not guarantee reliability or correct data

    • How to Use PuTTY

      How to Use PuTTY

      PuTTY is an open source terminal emulation program that accesses Telnet, SSH, and other TCP protocols and acts as a serial client for computers. The letters “TTY” in the name PuTTY represent the terminal application in the Unix and Linux Operating Systems (OSs) and is also short for teletype. The PuTTY application was first written

    • MTU (Maximum Transmission Unit)

      MTU (Maximum Transmission Unit)

      The MTU (Maximum Transmission Unit) is the size of the largest datagram that can be sent over a network. If a datagram is larger than an MTU, the datagram must be fragmented into multiple smaller datagrams. Default MTU Sizes Most network technologies have default MTU sizes which may be changed by the network administrator. Network

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