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    • How Does Lemon Juice Conduct Electricity?

      How Does Lemon Juice Conduct Electricity?

      Lemon juice has a natural pH of 2.0 and is naturally acidic. When mixed with vitamins and other additives in the lemon juice normally found in stores for human consumption, the pH is slightly less acidic with a pH measure of between 2.2 and 3.0. Due to the natural acidicy of lemon juice, it can

    • What Are Pennies Made Of?

      What Are Pennies Made Of?

      Before 1982, the penny was made of copper which is why they, unlike most other coins, don't look silver. However, after 1982, the U.S. government realized that it was too expensive to make a penny–more than the penny was worth in money–so they decided, instead, to make it with a mixture of two different metals.

    • What Causes Copper to Turn Green?

      What Causes Copper to Turn Green?

      Copper turns green because of a process known as oxidation which is the removal of electrons from the substance. Specifically, copper turns green because of something known as copper carbonate. This is the substance that is found on top of copper–whether they be copper pipes, pennies, statues or anything else. So, the cause of copper

    • Waste Oil Burners

      Waste Oil Burners

      Waste oil is the term used to refer to any petroleum-based/synthetic oil that is no longer considered usable. This may be due to the presence of excessive impurities, loss of the oil’s original properties, or just from the oil being over-exposed to the elements. A classic problem for society has been how to dispose of

    • Fraxel Laser

      Fraxel Laser

      Fraxel laser is a technology that is used for dealing with age spots, melasma (Mask of Pregnancy), sunspots, wrinkles at various parts of the face, upper lip lines, sun burned skin, and acne scars. Today it is the prime technology used for treating acne scars, as it barely creates any downtime. Initially developed and implemented

    • Magnesium Anodes

      Magnesium Anodes

      Sacrificial anodes are used in cathodic protection systems in order to protect the primary metallic component(s) from corrosion. A magnesium anode is a type of metal used on boats and ships in order to protect the vessel’s other metallic parts. It first protects the area’s less active metal and acts as a corrosion barrier. How

    • Magnetic Levitation

      Magnetic Levitation

      Magnets are mainly characterized for having poles: if you put together poles of the same charge they repel and if you put together charges of different pole, they attract. A body will be under Magnetic Levitation when it floats due to that special repelling quality of the magnets, i.e. when the force generated by the

    • How Do Oil Booms Work?

      How Do Oil Booms Work?

      Oil spills can occur with little to no notice. When a spill does happen, it becomes critical to act quickly to contain the spill in order to mitigate damage to the environment. Oil booms are commonly used in maritime environments as both a reactive action to a spill or as a preventative measure around ships

    • How a Nuclear Bomb Works

      How a Nuclear Bomb Works

      A nuclear bomb uses a nuclear reaction to generate energy (heat and radiated particles). The energy released is millions or in some cases billions of time stronger than TNT; the whole process is carried out in a very short time, providing huge destructive power. There are two types of nuclear reactions, fission and fusion. During

    • What Are Ferrofluids?

      What Are Ferrofluids?

      A ferrofluid is a metallic liquid that becomes magnetized when placed in a magnetic field. Ferrofluids are made up of clumps of iron nanoparticles that are evenly placed throughout a carrier fluid such as water or organic solvent. These clumps all work together to create a response to a magnetic field, consequently creating a very

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