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    • Steganography

      Steganography has gained a significant amount of press over the past several years when the technique hit the press as a possible method that many of the terrorists involved with the 9/11 attacks used to plan the operation. Similar to the use of encryption, steganography techniques have become one of the basic methods that organizations

    • Chosen Plaintext Attack

      Chosen Plaintext Attack

      A chosen plaintext attack is an attack where the cryptanalyst is able to define his own plaintext, feed it into the cipher, and analyze the resulting ciphertext. Mounting a chosen plaintext attack requires the cryptanalyst to be able to send data of his choice into the device which is doing the encryption, and it requires

    • How to Encrypt an entire Disk

      How to Encrypt an entire Disk

      Sometimes instead of encrypting a file or a set of files, you want to encrypt an entire file system, partition, or disk. One of the chief advantages of this approach is that, once you have entered your encryption key, the encryption becomes transparent to both you and your applications. When you power off your computer,

    • Certificate Authority

      Certificate Authority

      Certificate Authority or Certification Authority (CA) is an entity, which is core to many PKI (Public Key Infrastructure) schemes, whose purpose is to issue digital certificates to use by other parties. It exemplifies a trusted third party. Some certification authorities may charge a fee for their service while some other CAs are free. It is

    • Dictionary Attacks

      Dictionary Attacks

      A dictionary attack consists of trying “every word in the dictionary” as a possible password for an encrypted message. A dictionary attack is generally more efficient than a brute force attack because users typically choose poor passwords. Dictionary attacks are generally far less successful against systems that use passphrases instead of passwords. Improving Dictionary Attacks

    • PGP (Pretty Good Privacy)

      PGP (Pretty Good Privacy)

      PGP (Pretty Good Privacy) is a data encryption and decryption program used in e-mail messaging, encrypting/decrypting texts, files, or even disk partitions, in order to provide security of data. The program was created in 1991, by Phil Zimmerman. Pretty Good Privacy encryption is based on using a serial combination of data compression, hashing, public-key cryptography

    • PKI Authorities

      PKI Authorities

      PKI Authorities consists of three different authorities that essentially make up a PKI system. These are the Registration Authority, Certification Authority and Certificate Directory. Registration Authority The jobs of the Registration Authority are to processes user requests, confirm their identities, and induct them into the user database. Certification Authority The tasks of a Certification Authority

    • Rubber Hose Cryptology

      Rubber Hose Cryptology

      Rubber Hose Cryptography refers to a file system in which multiple archives are encrypted and hidden on the same disk in a way that makes each archive appear to be the size of the entire disk. Rubber Hose Cryptography is often used to hide illegal or confidential information in an attempt to prevent theft or

    • Block and Stream Ciphers

      Block and Stream Ciphers

      The two most common types of encryption algorithm used in modern cryptography are the block and stream ciphers. The block cipher uses a deterministic algorithm that conducts operations on fixed-length groupings of bits, or blocks. By using a transformation specified by a symmetric key, a block cipher is able to encrypt bulk data, and is

    • Cryptographic Algorithms

      Cryptographic Algorithms

      Symmetric Cryptographic Algorithms DES (Data Encryption Standard) is perhaps the most widely used cryptographic algorithm. DES is based upon IBM’s Lucifer algorithm. The NBS (National Bureau of Standards) and the NSA (National Security Agency) adopted DES as a federal standard in 1977. DES is a symmetric cipher with an effective key length of 56 bits.

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