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    • One-Time Pad

      One-Time Pad

      A one-time pad is a form of encryption that is difficult to decipher or crack if one is not the intended recipient. If done correctly, the strength of encryption of plaintext can almost be impossible to break in a useful timeframe. The system takes each character from plaintext and uses modular addition with a character

    • Digital Certificates

      Digital Certificates

      Digital certificates are the equivalent of a driver’s license, a marriage license, or any other form of identity. The only difference is that a digital certificate is used in conjunction with a public key encryption system. Digital certificates are electronic files that simply work as an online passport. Digital certificates are issued by a third

    • Substitution and Transposition Ciphers

      Substitution and Transposition Ciphers

      Substitution and transposition ciphers are two categories of ciphers used in classical cryptography. Substitution and transposition differ in how chunks of the message are handled by the encryption process. Substitution ciphers Substitution ciphers encrypt plaintext by changing the plaintext one piece at a time. The Caesar Cipher was an early substitution cipher. In the Caesar

    • RSA (Rivest, Shamir, and Adleman)

      RSA (Rivest, Shamir, and Adleman)

      RSA, which stands for Rivest, Shamir, and Adleman, is a security algorithm used in digital cryptography. RSA differs from older symmetric algorithms because it has the ability of allowing digital signing as well as advanced encryption for online commerce systems and high-profile institutions. RSA was one of the first major advancements in digital cryptography but

    • Known Plaintext Attack

      Known Plaintext Attack

      In cryptography, the known plaintext attack, or KPA, is an attack based on having samples of both the plaintext and corresponding encrypted or ciphertext for that information available. This information is used to conduct an analysis of the data in order to determine the secret key used to encrypt and decrypt the information. Historical ciphers

    • How MS Access Encryption Works

      How MS Access Encryption Works

      Microsoft Access had no encryption capability until the release of Microsoft Access 2007. With the MS Access 2007 release, encryption is now available. Encryption Requirements To encrypt your access database you must use a new database format released with MS Access 2007, the ACCDB format. Differences between the original MDB format and the new ACCDB

    • XOR Encryption

      XOR Encryption

      The XOR encryption is a simple symmetric cipher that is used in many applications where security is not a defined requirement. The XOR Operator XOR (Exclusive OR) is a bitwise operator from binary mathematics. The six bitwise operators, as defined in the C programming language, are: Operation Symbol AND & Inclusive OR | Exclusive OR

    • Cryptographic Libraries

      Cryptographic Libraries

      Cryptology has quickly grown from a field only used by government and military agencies to being one that impacts the day to day lives of consumers across the globe. Cryptographic libraries are used by individuals in just about any country in the world when conducting secure online transactions, communicating via secure email or video, and

    • Diffie-Hellman


      The Diffie-Hellman key exchange was first published by Whitfield Diffie and Martin Hellman in 1976 and is a popular method for exchanging cryptographic keys. The method is one of the most straight-forward examples of key exchanges implemented in the cryptology field and allows two individuals or parties that have not worked together before to establish

    • What is TrueCrypt?

      What is TrueCrypt?

      TrueCrypt is a free, open source disk encryption software that is available for the Windows XP, Windows Vista, Windows 7, Mac, Linux, and Unix operating systems. TrueCrypt provides users with real time encryption/decryption, parallelization and pipelining to read/write to partitions as fast as non-encrypted partitions, and plausible deniability through hidden volumes and hidden operating systems

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