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    • Cryptology

      Cryptology

      The field of cryptology includes both the study of and practice of securing information in the presence of untrusted third parties or adversaries. Specifically, it is focused on creating and analyzing the protocols used to subvert attempts by adversaries to gain access to or interrupt the flow of information between trusted parties. Specific focus areas

    • XOR Encryption

      XOR Encryption

      The XOR encryption is a simple symmetric cipher that is used in many applications where security is not a defined requirement. The XOR Operator XOR (Exclusive OR) is a bitwise operator from binary mathematics. The six bitwise operators, as defined in the C programming language, are: Operation Symbol AND & Inclusive OR | Exclusive OR

    • How to Remove a Virus

      How to Remove a Virus

      A computer virus is designed to infect computer files through self-replication, and is able to infect other computers on its own. Viruses infect computers through boot sectors of portable drives, email attachments, other files, and by exploiting vulnerabilities in instant messaging and other real-time communication systems online. Not all computer viruses harm computers, but many

    • How to Determine if a Credit Card Number is Valid

      How to Determine if a Credit Card Number is Valid

      Credit cards use the Luhn Check Digit Algorithm. The main purpose of the Luhn Check Digit Algorithm is to catch data entry errors, but it does double duty here as a weak security tool. The Luhn Check Digit Algorithm For a card with an even number of digits, double every odd numbered digit (1st digit,

    • How to Remove the “My Web Search” Toolbar

      How to Remove the “My Web Search” Toolbar

      My Web Search is a malware toolbar distributed by Mindspark Interactive Network via their extensive network of spam sites, most of which are targeted towards young people.  This rapidly expanding list of sites includes Zwinky, Zwinky Cuties, GirlSense, Webfetti, Kazula, iWon, SmileyCentral, MyFunCards, CursorMania, and CardBoiled. These sites trick people, mainly children, into installing the

    • How to Bypass Websense

      How to Bypass Websense

      Many businesses and government institutions use a content filtering program such as Websense to keep employees from visiting certain websites while at work. These programs can either prohibit the use of certain websites or monitor all of the sites that employees visit while in the office. Websense blocks several website categories: adult material, entertainment, drugs,

    • TEMPEST

      TEMPEST

      TEMPEST stands for Transient Electromagnetic Pulse Surveillance Technology. Computers and other electronic equipment release interference to their surrounding environment. You may observe this by placing two video monitors close together. The pictures will behave erratically until you space them apart. What is important for an observer is the emission of digital pulses (zeroes and ones)

    • Known Ciphertext Attack

      Known Ciphertext Attack

      The known ciphertext attack, or ciphertext only attack (COA) is an attack method used in cryptanalysis when the attacker has access to a given set of ciphertext(s). The attacker does not have access to corresponding cleartext in this method; however, COA is successful when correspdonding plaintext can be determined from a given set of ciphertext.

    • PKI Authorities

      PKI Authorities

      PKI Authorities consists of three different authorities that essentially make up a PKI system. These are the Registration Authority, Certification Authority and Certificate Directory. Registration Authority The jobs of the Registration Authority are to processes user requests, confirm their identities, and induct them into the user database. Certification Authority The tasks of a Certification Authority

    • Diffie-Hellman

      Diffie-Hellman

      The Diffie-Hellman key exchange was first published by Whitfield Diffie and Martin Hellman in 1976 and is a popular method for exchanging cryptographic keys. The method is one of the most straight-forward examples of key exchanges implemented in the cryptology field and allows two individuals or parties that have not worked together before to establish

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