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    • How to Audit Unix Passwords

      How to Audit Unix Passwords

      To audit Unix passwords, you must compare each encrypted password in the Unix password file with a set of potential encrypted passwords. These potential encrypted passwords are created by encrypting every password in a list of plaintext passwords. This is an example of a dictionary attack. The Unix passwd File Location The traditional location for

    • Unix Signals

      Unix Signals

      A signal is a message that can be sent to a running process. Programs, users, or administrators can initiate signals. For example, the proper method of telling the Internet Daemon (inetd) to re-read its configuration file is to send it a SIGHUP signal. For example, if the current process ID (PID) of inetd is 4140,

    • How to Change an IP Address on Solaris

      How to Change an IP Address on Solaris

      To change an IP address on a Solaris system immediately, use the `ifconfig` command. The syntax for `ifconfig` is: ifconfig <interface> <ip address> <netmask> <broadcast address> If the user does not know his/her network interface names, he/she should use the `ifconfig -a` command to list all of the available network interfaces. Permanently Change an IP

    • Restricted Shells

      Restricted Shells

      A restricted shell is a Unix shell that has been modified to allow the Unix shell user to do fewer things than a normal shell would allow him to do. It may allow the user to run only certain programs. It may stop the user from changing directories. Many sites run their own restricted shells

    • How to Find Out CPU Utilization in UNIX

      How to Find Out CPU Utilization in UNIX

      Keeping track of your CPU’s performance is extremely important. In UNIX, you can accomplish this task by using the system utilities and commands. For those who would like to find out their CPU utilization, one command is extremely important. It is called SAR – System Activity Reporter. The SAR commands make accessing CPU performance quite

    • How to Backup Unix

      How to Backup Unix

      Most Unix systems come with several basic backup software options, including dd, cpio, tar, and dump. If the basic backup software included with Unix does not meet your needs, you may want to look at some of the more comprehensive software packages designed to backup Unix and Windows systems. Built-in Unix Backup Software tar tar

    • What is Tar?

      What is Tar?

      Tar refers to a tape archiving file format and the program that creates them. Tar stands for tape archive. It combines multiple files together so that they can be used for programs, applications, and critical system files. While Tar does not directly install files to a user’s hard drive, it is responsible for compiling the

    • LinuxCAD

      LinuxCAD

      CAD programs can be an exciting and helpful tool when designing blueprints for a house, vehicle, or electrical circuit. One of these programs is the popular LinuxCAD software that allows you to edit and create a number of blueprints and schematics under the Linux operating system. LinuxCAD comes with many features that other CAD programs

    • How to Use the Grep Command

      How to Use the Grep Command

      The grep command is a search command built into a variety of Unix based operating systems. This command line utility, whose name stems from the original Unix term which means “search globally for lines matching the regular expression, and print them,” can be accessed using the command line or terminal from anywhere in the Unix

    • How to Use the Unix Top Command

      How to Use the Unix Top Command

      Top is a small, but powerful program on both Unix and Linux systems. Its purpose is to allow users to monitor processes on their system. It has two main sections. The first displays general information such as the load averages, number of running and sleeping tasks, and overall CPU and memory usage. The second main

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