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    • Hybrid Cars

      Hybrid Cars

      Most hybrid cars use a combination of gasoline and electric engines. There are also types of hybrid cars that use a combination of diesel and electric engines. Gasoline & Electric -Powered Cars ‘Regular’ gasoline-powered cars derive their propulsion power from combustion of gasoline. The combustion of gas produces the energy needed to turn the transmission

    • What Are Photonic Crystals?

      What Are Photonic Crystals?

      Photonic crystals are those that manipulate how photons are absorbed or reflected off of them. They occur in nature and are made of dielectric nanostructures that allow certain wavelengths to pass through them while blocking other wavelengths. The visible light portion of the electromagnetic spectrum’s wavelengths is responsible for colors, therefore photonic crystals can spontaneously

    • What Causes Radioactivity?

      What Causes Radioactivity?

      Radioactivity is caused when an atom, for whatever reason, wants to give away some of its energy. It does this because it wants to shift from an unstable configuration to a more stable configuration. The energy that is released when the atom makes this shift is known as radioactivity. In other words, radioactivity is the

    • What is Acesulfame Potassium?

      What is Acesulfame Potassium?

      Acesulfame potassium (Acesulfame K or Ace K, where “K” is the elemental symbol for potassium) is commonly used as an artificial sweetener or flavor enhancer. It is used in low calorie food products as it replaces sugar and other natural sweeteners that commonly add large amounts of calories. Acesulfame potassium’s trade names include “Sunett” and

    • How Do Light Bulbs Work?

      How Do Light Bulbs Work?

      The light bulb, invented in 1854, has been a crucial component of civilization since. Contrary to popular belief, the light bulb was invented by Henricg Globel, a German watchmaker, not Thomas Edison. Edison did improve on the idea of the incandescent light bulb, though, and strived to make it better. Due to the works of

    • Vulcanized Rubber

      Vulcanized Rubber

      Vulcanized rubber is a material that undergoes a chemical process known as vulcanization. This process involves mixing natural rubber with additives such as sulfur and other curatives. Vulcanization makes rubber much stronger, more flexible, and more resistant to heat and other environmental conditions. Vulcanized rubber makes both soft and hard objects, ranging from rubber bands

    • Boltzmann Constant

      Boltzmann Constant

      The Boltzmann Constant (Boltzmann’s Constant) is a fundamental physics constant that plays a pivotal role in almost every single statistical formulation in both quantum and classical physics. It is named after Austrian physicist, Ludwig Boltzmann (1844 – 1906), who made significant contributions to the foundation and development of a particular branch of theoretical physics known

    • Specific Gravity

      Specific Gravity

      Specific gravity is a special case of relative density. That is, a substance’s density is divided by the density of water at 4 F (0 C). Since water has a density of 1 gram/cm3 and all of the units cancel, specific gravity is the same number as density, but without any units (dimensionless). Relative density

    • What Are Ferrofluids?

      What Are Ferrofluids?

      A ferrofluid is a metallic liquid that becomes magnetized when placed in a magnetic field. Ferrofluids are made up of clumps of iron nanoparticles that are evenly placed throughout a carrier fluid such as water or organic solvent. These clumps all work together to create a response to a magnetic field, consequently creating a very

    • ESR Spectroscopy

      ESR Spectroscopy

      ESR Spectroscopy (Electron Spin Resonance Spectroscopy or Electron Paramagnetic Resonance Spectroscopy) is a technique used for studying chemical species that have one or more “free radical” or unpaired electrons. Most stable molecules only have paired electrons without any free radicals, so ESR Spectroscopy is used less often than NMR (Nuclear Magnetic Resonance) Spectroscopy, the usual

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