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    • Restricted Shells

      Restricted Shells

      A restricted shell is a Unix shell that has been modified to allow the Unix shell user to do fewer things than a normal shell would allow him to do. It may allow the user to run only certain programs. It may stop the user from changing directories. Many sites run their own restricted shells

    • How to Backup Unix

      How to Backup Unix

      Most Unix systems come with several basic backup software options, including dd, cpio, tar, and dump. If the basic backup software included with Unix does not meet your needs, you may want to look at some of the more comprehensive software packages designed to backup Unix and Windows systems. Built-in Unix Backup Software tar tar

    • UMASK


      umask is a Unix shell built-in command that automatically sets file permissions on newly created files. The umask command can be confusing to use because it does work as a mask. In other words, the user sets the permissions that he/she does not want in the umask. To calculate permissions that will result from specific

    • How to Change an IP Address on Solaris

      How to Change an IP Address on Solaris

      To change an IP address on a Solaris system immediately, use the `ifconfig` command. The syntax for `ifconfig` is: ifconfig <interface> <ip address> <netmask> <broadcast address> If the user does not know his/her network interface names, he/she should use the `ifconfig -a` command to list all of the available network interfaces. Permanently Change an IP

    • Where to Download Unix

      Where to Download Unix

      Free derivatives of Unix can be easily downloaded via the Internet. This sets Unix apart from other proprietary operating systems like Microsoft Windows. The different Unix versions and Unix-like operating systems available for download include FreeBSD, OpenBSD, Red Hat Fedora Linux, Debian Linux, Ubuntu Linux, and Sun Solaris. Those who are new to Unix or

    • Where to Get a Unix Emulator

      Where to Get a Unix Emulator

      It is very useful to have a Unix emulator installed on your machine to serve as a tool for learning how to use Unix and getting used to its environment. Once you are familiar, you can go ahead and install a full version of Unix. The best Unix emulator for your needs is Cygwin (pronounced

    • Unix File Permissions

      Unix File Permissions

      Unix file permissions are based upon an octal code. Unix file permissions are stored in a ten character array. The first character of the file permissions stores the file type. The standard file types are: Character Meaning – Plain file d Directory c Character device b Block device l Symbolic link s Socket = or

    • How to Setup a Linux File Server

      How to Setup a Linux File Server

      One way that a small business that requires a file server can save thousands of dollars per year is to set up a Linux file server. Linux is an open source software platform that, in many ways, is just as good as or better than other types of platforms including Microsoft and Sun. Small businesses

    • How to Use the Unix Top Command

      How to Use the Unix Top Command

      Top is a small, but powerful program on both Unix and Linux systems. Its purpose is to allow users to monitor processes on their system. It has two main sections. The first displays general information such as the load averages, number of running and sleeping tasks, and overall CPU and memory usage. The second main

    • How to Use the Grep Command

      How to Use the Grep Command

      The grep command is a search command built into a variety of Unix based operating systems. This command line utility, whose name stems from the original Unix term which means “search globally for lines matching the regular expression, and print them,” can be accessed using the command line or terminal from anywhere in the Unix

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