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    • How Firewall Protection Works

      How Firewall Protection Works

      Firewall protection works by blocking certain types of traffic between a source and a destination. All network traffic has a source, a destination, and a protocol. This protocol is usually TCP, UDP, or ICMP. If this protocol is TCP or UDP, there is a source port and a destination port. Most often the source port

    • WEP (Wired Equivalent Privacy)

      WEP (Wired Equivalent Privacy)

      Wired Equivalent Privacy (WEP) is the encryption algorithm built into the 802.11 (Wi-Fi) standard. WEP encryption uses the RC4 stream cipher with 40 or 104 bit keys and a 24 bit initialization vector. WEP Key Generation Most 802.11 devices allow WEP keys to be entered using an ASCII passphrase or in hexidecimal format. The conversion

    • Ethernet


      Ethernet is the most common LAN (Local Area Network) technology in use today. Xerox developed Ethernet in the 1970s, and became popular after Digital Equipment Corporation and Intel joined Xerox in developing the Ethernet standard in 1980. Ethernet was officially accepted as IEEE standard 802.3 in 1985. The term “Ethernet” is now used to refer

    • Internet Backbone

      Internet Backbone

      In 2005, the one billionth Internet user logged on to the World Wide Web. Hundreds of thousands of new users log in for the first time each week. It is estimated that the 2 billion user mark will be reached in less than 10 years from now. There is no question that the World Wide

    • traceroute


      traceroute is a command which is used to trace the route of a packet through a TCP/IP network. traceroute is a Unix command. Under Microsoft Windows, the traceroute command has been renamed `tracert`. Unix `traceroute` and Microsoft Windows `tracert` are designed to accomplish the same task, but differ in the way they display output, in

    • Wi-Fi Software Tools

      Wi-Fi Software Tools

      A wide variety of Wi-Fi software tools are available. These tools for Wi-Fi perform functions such as: Wireless network discovery Wireless network mapping Wireless network traffic analysis Wireless network RF signal strength monitoring Wireless network encryption cracking Wireless network custom frame generation Dictionary or brute force attacks against wireless networks Denial of Service (DoS) attacks

    • Cat 6

      Cat 6

      Cat 6 (Category 6) is a cable standard used mainly for Ethernet computer networking, security systems, and telephone services. Cat 6 cable is backward compatible with the Cat 5, Cat 5E, and Cat 3 cable standards. Category 6 cable is capable of transmitting voice and data up to 155 Mbps (mega bits per second), with

    • DSL vs Cable Modem

      DSL vs Cable Modem

      Two of the most popular technologies that offer speedy access to the World Wide Web are DSL broadband and the cable modem. There are several reasons why this is the case and the first one is that both of these Internet connections are considerably faster than the standard dialup connections. However, when you compare the

    • ARP (Address Resolution Protocol)

      ARP (Address Resolution Protocol)

      ARP is the Address Resolution Protocol. The ARP protocol maps addresses between the Data Link Layer and the Network Layer of the OSI Model. The Data Link layer of TCP/IP networks utilizes MAC addresses; the Network Layer of TCP/IP networks utilizes IP addresses. ARP and RARP The ARP protocol is used to map IP addresses

    • VLAN Hopping

      VLAN Hopping

      VLAN Hopping is one of the primary VLAN based attacks used by hackers to infiltrate network security. VLAN hopping is used to attack a network by sending packets to a port which is generally not accessible. VLAN hopping attacks are mainly conducted in the Dynamic Trunking Protocol and, in some cases; the attacks are targeted

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