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    • How to Upgrade LinkSys Firmware

      How to Upgrade LinkSys Firmware

      It is important to check regularly if a Linksys product has a new firmware update. Firmware updates are quite common in computer peripherals and devices and in many cases must be updated in order to run properly. However, before upgrading LinkSys firmware, it is important to understand what firmware is and why it should be

    • IKE (Internet Key Exchange)

      IKE (Internet Key Exchange)

      The term Internet Key Exchange refers to the networking protocol that designed to configure a SA (security association) within the IPsec protocol suite of applications. Internet Key Exchange (or IKE) is constructed on top of ISAKMP and the Oakley protocol and is often used in the VPN tunneling process. X.509 certificates are used for authentication

    • 9 to 25 Pin Serial Adapter Pinout

      9 to 25 Pin Serial Adapter Pinout

      This adapter will enable you to connect a 25 pin male serial cable to a 9 pin female serial connector on your computer. 9 pin female connector 25 pin male connector 9-Pin to 25-Pin Adapter Pinout Signal 9-Pin 25-Pin Carrier Detect 1 8 Receive Data 2 3 Transmit Data 3 2 Data Terminal Ready 4

    • VLAN Hopping

      VLAN Hopping

      VLAN Hopping is one of the primary VLAN based attacks used by hackers to infiltrate network security. VLAN hopping is used to attack a network by sending packets to a port which is generally not accessible. VLAN hopping attacks are mainly conducted in the Dynamic Trunking Protocol and, in some cases; the attacks are targeted

    • Ethernet at the Data Link Layer

      Ethernet at the Data Link Layer

      Ethernet at the Data Link Layer Ethernet provides services corresponding to Layers 1 and 2 of the OSI reference model, and IEEE 802.3 specifies the physical layer (Layer 1) and the channel-access portion of the Data Link (Layer 2). In addition, IEEE 802.3 does not define a logical link control protocol but does not specify

    • What is Intersymbol Interference?

      What is Intersymbol Interference?

      Intersymbol interference is a signal distortion in telecommunication. One or more symbols can interfere with other symbols causing noise or a less reliable signal. The main causes of intersymbol interference are multipath propagation or non-linear frequency in channels. This has the effect of a blur or mixture of symbols, which can reduce signal clarity. If

    • 802.11i


      The 802.11i wireless standard was released by the IEEE on June of 2004 and implements improved encryption for wireless networks than realized on past standards released. Commonly referred to as the WPA2 implementation, the 802.11i implementation requires newer encryption standards than seen with the WEP implementation by requiring TKIP (Temporal Key Integrity Protocol) and AES

    • Tunneling


      Tunneling is a way in which data is transferred between two networks securely. All the data being transferred is fragmented into smaller packets or frames and then passed through the tunnel. This process is different from a normal data transfer between nodes. Every frame passing through the tunnel will be encrypted with an additional layer

    • RPC Server Unavailable

      RPC Server Unavailable

      An RPC (Remote Procedure Call) is a technique used in computer science that allows an application to contact a separate application or service within the same hard drive or on a remote location. While the application initiating the call is known as the “client,” the application or location that is being called is referred to

    • PPP Authentication Protocols

      PPP Authentication Protocols

      Windows Server 2003 and Windows XP support the following PPP authentication protocols: PAP or Password Authentication Protocol The oldest forms of authentication schemes used where the user credential are sent in plain text. This is not the securest form of passing authentication credentials as anybody can use a third party sniffer program and capture these

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