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    • VLAN (Virtual Local Area Network)

      VLAN (Virtual Local Area Network)

      VLAN (Virtual Local Area Network) is a logical local area network (or LAN) that extends beyond a single traditional LAN to a group of LAN segments, given specific configurations. Since a VLAN is a logical entity, its creation and configuration is done completely in software. How is a VLAN Identified? Since a VLAN is a

    • Cat 5

      Cat 5

      Cat 5, short for Category 5, is the current accepted industry standard for network and telephone wiring. Cat 5 is an unshielded twisted pair type cable exclusively designed for high signal integrity. The cable consists of four pairs of 24-guage twisted copper pairs terminating in an RJ-45 jack. If a wire is certified as Category

    • Collision Domain

      Collision Domain

      A computer network can be segmented physically and logically. A collision domain is one of the logical network segments in which the data packets can collide with each other. One of the most common protocols used when referring to a collision domain is the Ethernet protocol. Collision domains are often referred to as ‘Ethernet segments.’

    • IP Address Conflict

      IP Address Conflict

      An IP (or Internet Protocol) address conflict occurs when two different systems on the same subnet are assigned or otherwise have their network interface configured to use the same IP address. It is possible to have two systems on different subnets configured with the same IP address, but not have a conflict occur due to

    • Dynamic DNS

      Dynamic DNS

      Dynamic DNS is a technology that allows you to update the IP address of a domain in real time. In order to fully understand how Dynamic DNS works, it is important to first understand domain names and name servers. Essentially, all website domain names are held on computer servers known as name servers. These servers

    • Routing


      Routing is the process of moving packets through an internetwork, such as the Internet. Routing actually consists of two separate, but related, tasks: Defining paths for the transmission of packets through an internetwork. Forwarding packets based upon the defined paths. Routing takes place in IP networks, based on IP routing tables and its entries. The

    • Network Routers

      Network Routers

      A network router is a network device with interfaces in multiple networks whose task is to copy packets from one network to another. Routers operate at Layer 3 of the OSI Model, the Network Layer. This is in contrast to switches, which operate at Layer 2 of the OSI Model, the Data-Link Layer. A network

    • Network Layer

      Network Layer

      The Network Layer is located at the 3rd position in the seven layer OSI model. It offers serviceable and practical ways of transmitting variable length data series from a source to a destination through one or more networks, while preserving the class of service and error handling tasks. The Network Layer is accountable for source

    • Packet Sniffers

      Packet Sniffers

      Packet sniffing is listening (with software) to the raw network device for interesting packets. When the software sees a packet that fits certain criteria, it logs it to a file. The most common criterion for an interesting packet is one that contains words like “login” or “password.” To packet sniff, obtain or code a packet

    • Routing Protocols

      Routing Protocols

      A routing protocol is the implementation of a routing algorithm in software or hardware. A routing protocol uses metrics to determine which path to utilize to transmit a packet across an internetwork. The metrics that routing protocols use include: Number of network layer devices along the path (hop count) Bandwidth Delay Load MTU Cost Routing

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