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    • What is a Fullerene?

      What is a Fullerene?

      A fullerene is a third form of the carbon molecule that falls in between graphite and diamond. It was named for Richard Buckminster Fuller, who was well known for geodesic dome designs whose appearance closely resembled spherical fullerenes. A Fullerene’s carbon atoms may be arranged in a cylindrical, ellipsoid, or spherical form. The spherical fullerenes

    • What is Bioluminescence?

      What is Bioluminescence?

      A living organism is bioluminescent when it produces and emits light. Most organisms that do this live in the sea. However, there are several land insects and plants that also have bioluminescent qualities, including the firefly. The trait has typically evolved in organisms that either need to communicate with each other or lure/detect prey. How

    • Fluorescence Spectroscopy

      Fluorescence Spectroscopy

      In the field of spectroscopy, fluorescence can be analyzed from a sample of material through a special form of electromagnetic spectroscopy. This fluorescence spectroscopy uses a beam of light that is tailored for the type of fluorescence detection needed in compounds. The usual option is an ultraviolet light that is used to excite electrons in

    • How Laser Hair Removal Works

      How Laser Hair Removal Works

      Laser hair removal, as its name suggests, is using a laser to remove any hair that is unwanted. The majority of the process is done with a thin light beam of laser passing through the area of the skin that is being treated. Within the skin, specifically the dark pigment, also known as the melanin

    • What Are Subatomic Particles?

      What Are Subatomic Particles?

      Subatomic particles are the most elementary particles found in nature. The three basic subatomic particles that comprise an atom are protons, electrons, and neutrons. The historical definition of a subatomic particle was expanded over the past several decades to include elementary particles that are less complex than an atom and cannot be broken down further.

    • Fingerprint Identification

      Fingerprint Identification

      What is Fingerprint Identification? Fingerprint identification is the process of using fingerprints to identify an individual. This is very effective because each person has completely unique fingerprints that do not change with age. Fingerprint identification is used for a variety of reasons: security, criminal investigations, and even ergonomics. Fingerprint identification often consists of a fingerprint

    • What is an Ultrasonic Fogger?

      What is an Ultrasonic Fogger?

      An ultrasonic fogger is a device that uses ultrasonic sound waves to break water into millions of individual water droplets that are then sprayed into the air as a thick fog. Ultrasonic foggers are most often used for Halloween decorations as a dry ice replacement. The fog that an ultrasonic fogger produces is not created

    • How a Convection Oven Works

      How a Convection Oven Works

      In a regular oven, a thin layer of air insulates food from the heat beneath it. This layer of air causes food to be cooked unevenly and slows cooking time down considerably. A convection oven is a type of oven that solves this problem by circulating the air within the chamber by using either one

    • Petabyte

      Petabyte

      A petabyte is a measurement unit that describes a piece of information that is equal to 1,000 terabytes or one quadrillion bytes of data. A single petabyte is equal to 1,000,000,000,000,000 bytes . When a petabyte describes computer memory, it is also used in reference to a corresponding power of 1024. The approved scientific symbol

    • What is Photolithography?

      What is Photolithography?

      Photolithography is the process of making integrated circuits through optical erosion. Rather than directly cutting into an integrated circuit, photolithography is used due to its ability to perform more precise incisions. Photolithography is a highly complex technique and requires both an extremely clean substrate surface and ideal temperature conditions. It can only be used to

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