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    • What is the Fifth State of Matter?

      What is the Fifth State of Matter?

      The fifth state of matter is actually the first phase of matter. It is called a Bose-Einstein Condensate. Matter in the fifth state is really slow moving and extremely condensed. It only exists at near absolute zero temperatures and is very fragile and unstable. It was discovered in 1995 by Eric Cornell and Carl Weiman through experimentation with rubidium,

    • Weather Modification Technology

      Weather Modification Technology

      Weather modification refers to willful manipulation of the climate or local weather. Research done in this field goes back to as far as the early 1940s when the US military experimented with cloud seeding to stimulate rain. Today, private corporations have joined the weather modification research effort to protect people, cities and assets from the

    • The Venturi Effect

      The Venturi Effect

      The Venturi effect is the phenomenon that occurs when a fluid that is flowing through a pipe is forced through a narrow section, resulting in a pressure decrease and a velocity increase. The effect is mathematically described through the Bernoulli equation and can be observed in both nature and industry. Many industry applications rely on

    • Vehicle Platooning

      Vehicle Platooning

      Vehicle platooning is one of the innovations in the automotive industry that aim to improve the safety, efficiency, mileage, and time of travel of vehicles while relieving traffic congestion, decreasing pollution and reducing stress for passengers. One of the recent demonstrations of this technology was during the PATH program done in California by 8 Buicks

    • What is a Refractometer?

      What is a Refractometer?

      Refractometers measure the refractive index of liquids, gases, and translucent solids such as gemstones. The measurement of how much the speed of light is reduced when traveling through a gas, solid, or solution is referred to as the refractive index. When the device is used to test liquids, it typically measures the salinity, fluid concentration,

    • U.S. Drones

      U.S. Drones

      The U.S. drone program has seen significant press since the first Gulf War when the defenders of Faylaka Island surrendered to the Pioneer drone, or Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV), flying spotting services for the USS Wisconsin (BB 64). Since that time, the technology powering U.S. drones has steadily improved now allowing the MQ-1B Predator and

    • Infrared


      Infrared light is a form of electromagnetic waves. In its visible form, infrared can be seen as red or violet. Visible infrared waves are very short, measuring about 750 nm in length; longer infrared waves which are closest to microwaves are about 1mm in length. Infrared Waves While most infrared wave lengths give off heat,

    • How Do X-Ray Machines Work?

      How Do X-Ray Machines Work?

      The Parts of an X-Ray Machine There are three main parts of an x-ray machine. The first is the x-ray tube. This is responsible for the creation of x-rays. Therefore, without this functioning properly, there would be little chance for the x-ray to work in the right way. It generates enough x-rays so that when

    • What Are Pennies Made Of?

      What Are Pennies Made Of?

      Before 1982, the penny was made of copper which is why they, unlike most other coins, don't look silver. However, after 1982, the U.S. government realized that it was too expensive to make a penny–more than the penny was worth in money–so they decided, instead, to make it with a mixture of two different metals.

    • What Are the Four Dimensions?

      What Are the Four Dimensions?

      The four dimensions are concepts in mathematics to describe different shapes. It is easy to understand a first dimension, second dimension and third dimension shape. All things are 3D in the world, but images can be 2D. A first dimension is as easy as a line. However, what is the fourth dimension? The fourth dimension

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