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    • Isobutane


      Isomers are compounds with the same molecular, but different structural formulas. Isobutane is an isomer of butane. It belongs to a class of compounds called alkanes, which are chains of carbon atoms where each carbon atom is attached to as many hydrogen atoms as possible.  Its chemical formula is C4H10. Butane consists of four carbon

    • Who Discovered Quantum and Particle Physics?

      Who Discovered Quantum and Particle Physics?

      During the nineteenth century the main theory in physics was still Newtonian Mechanics. With the advances in electricity, magnetism and the studies about light, it was clear that the theory had its limitations. The limitations appeared in the limits of the too small (atomic size) or the too fast (light speed). The study of the

    • Total Harmonic Distortion

      Total Harmonic Distortion

      Total Harmonic Distortion (THD) is a measured difference in audio levels between the input audio signal’s harmonics and the harmonics of the output audio signal of an amplifier or other audio device. Output Distortion Level As the signal passes through an amplifier it is always somewhat distorted at its output. The waveform at the input

    • What is a Fullerene?

      What is a Fullerene?

      A fullerene is a third form of the carbon molecule that falls in between graphite and diamond. It was named for Richard Buckminster Fuller, who was well known for geodesic dome designs whose appearance closely resembled spherical fullerenes. A Fullerene’s carbon atoms may be arranged in a cylindrical, ellipsoid, or spherical form. The spherical fullerenes

    • Intelligent Transportation Systems

      Intelligent Transportation Systems

      Intelligent transportation systems are projects that aim to integrate modern communication and information technology into existing transportation management systems in order to optimize vehicle life, fuel efficiency, safety, and traffic in urbanized cities. The need for intelligent transportation systems stems from the fact that traffic congestion has been increasing all around the world because of

    • How a Laser Cutter Works

      How a Laser Cutter Works

      A Laser cutter is a machine that uses a laser to cut materials. The Laser Cutter works by making the laser enter through the side of the material that needs to be cut and shoots it through the axis of the beam. If a cut needs to be made and there are no edges near

    • What is the Fifth State of Matter?

      What is the Fifth State of Matter?

      The fifth state of matter is actually the first phase of matter. It is called a Bose-Einstein Condensate. Matter in the fifth state is really slow moving and extremely condensed. It only exists at near absolute zero temperatures and is very fragile and unstable. It was discovered in 1995 by Eric Cornell and Carl Weiman through experimentation with rubidium,

    • The Coriolis Effect

      The Coriolis Effect

      The Coriolis effect is the tendency for a moving body that is on or above the Earth’s surface to drift sideways from its intended course due to the Earth’s rotation. The direction of drift is to the right in the Northern Hemisphere and to the left in the Southern Hemisphere. This is because the Earth’s

    • What Causes Typhoons?

      What Causes Typhoons?

      A typhoon is nothing more than a hurricane that occurs in the North West Pacific Ocean. The same conditions that cause a hurricane in the Atlantic ocean that hit the United States every summer are the ones that cause a typhoon. However, a typhoon does have a series of specific “rules” to exist and therefore,

    • Types of Robots

      Types of Robots

      A robot is a mechanical or virtual artificial agent that software, hardware, or firmware programming controls/guides. Most robots today are programmed to complete tasks on their own or via human direction. No longer a product of science fiction, there are a number of industries today that use of various types of robots. These include the

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