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  • IT Glossary — An IP address of the local machine, generally a system’s loopback address. It is used to access a local machine’s TCP/IP resources. A message directed to the will routinely reroute the message into the machines network adapter within the TCP/IP stack.

    3GP — A container format for multimedia files created by the 3GPP (Third Generation Partnership Project) for 3G mobile phones. The 3GP uses the .3gp file extension, and is a general video format that makes the file smaller and more accessible for mobile phones.

    8VSB — (8-Level Vestigial Sideband) – A method of modulation implemented for terrestrial propagation of ATSC digital broadcasting. 8VSB requires a smaller amount of power to coverage on small areas. 8VSB employs Nyquist sift to attain the required broadcast.

    Abandonware — A term used for obsolete software applications or programs that are no longer supported or sold.  These types of applications are not accessible in public domains.

    ACH (Automated Clearing House) — An electronic system used for financial transactions within the US. It processes huge volumes of debit and credit transactions. It includes express vendor payments and deposit payroll.

    ActiveX — A group of item-oriented tools and programming languages. It uses COM (Component Object Model) as its chief technology. It uses an independent program that can operate within the ActiveX network when creating a program that executes in ActiveX environment. Its component is identified as ActiveX Control.

    Address Munging — A way for users and groups to exchange or publish email addresses online while avoiding them being leeched by bots. Address munging is done by generating email addresses that cannot be recognized by a leecher or a bot. For example, instead of writing address@lycos.com, it should be written as address at lycos dot com to avoid detection.

    Adium — A free IM client for Mac OS X which supports multitudes of protocols. It is programmed using the Mac OS X Cocoa API. Adium was created by Adam Iser, a college student. Adium v1.0 was released in September, 2001.

    Adobe Acrobat — A compilation of programs designed to create, manage, access and organize Adobe PDF (Portable Document Format) files. It was created by Adobe Systems.

    AdSense — An advertising platform managed by Google. It allows web owners to integrate image, text, as well as video ads in their websites to generate income when visitors click or view those ads.

    Adware — An application that can display banners and advertisements while an application is running. Its author incorporates code that sends pop-up advertisement simultaneously. Adware may also track vital information about the user and deliver it to a remote server.

    AES (Advanced Encryption Standard) — A standard protocol for encryption founded by the US government. It employs the standard ciphers AES-256, AES-128, and AES-192. All AES ciphers are 128-bit in size. It is recognized as the algorithm used for symmetric cryptography. The NIST announced the AES as FIPS PUB 197 standard on 2001.

    AFS (Andrew File System) — A network system distributed to facilitate information from various AFS systems. AFS is a compiled cell that represents a section of the file space that can be managed independently. The cells link to a UNIX system using an AFS root directory.

    AIM (AOL Instant Messenger) — A messaging service that uses the OSCAR IM protocol as well as TOC protocol which permits authorized users to connect real time. The application is accessible for Mac OS, Windows OS, and Linux. The application was created and managed by AOL (America Online).

    AIM Express — The next generation messaging service that does not oblige the user to download messaging applications. It uses the Windows browser to run and send messages. It establishes a new window that includes file link with IM software. AIM Express can initiate chat rooms, access the address list, as well as “view profiles”.

    AIX — A 64-bit UNIX that communicates with the TCSEC C2. It operates on 32-bit and 64-bit programs. The AIX can support JAVA, NIS+, and other applications handling extreme graphic models.

    ALG.exe (Application Layer Gateway) — Allows certain applications such as RTSP, SIP, FTP, etc. to be executed. This permits accessing software from another computer, even those with firewalls. Security protocols are blocked without the executable ALG.

    Algorithm — A set of fixed protocols used for data processing and calculation. It is a calculable group of instructions used to achieve a preferred result. An alteration from a single condition to another is not essentially the rule. This is because some algorithms utilize randomness.

    AMPS (Advanced Mobile Phone System) — An analog mobile technology created by Bell Laboratory. It became the principal analog mobile technology within North America. AMPS use separate frequencies for every conversation, which requires larger bandwidth for users. It is identical to the “OG” system.

    Anchor Text (Link Label) — The text of a hyperlink within a web page, which typically identifies the content of the page the hyperlink links to. The words enclosed in the Anchor Text inform web page visitors of what they may expect on a linked page, and search engines about the contents of the linked page. Anchor Text also factors into the terms under which the search engine will rank the linked page.

    Anonymous Proxy — A server that stands between an internet user and the rest of the internet, acting as an intermediary. The user of an anonymous proxy connects to the proxy server instructing it to fetch online content on its behalf. Content is then accessed under the IP address of the proxy server rather than the IP address of the client, which makes the client’s internet activities more anonymous.

    Anonymous Surfing — A way of surfing the internet while hiding the personally identifiable information usually collected about the surfer. One way of doing so is by using anonymous proxies or Virtual Private Networks.

    ANPR (Automatic Number Plate Recognition) — It is a surveillance technique that uses optical character detection on license plates. ANPR can operate to perform saving of images collected by cameras within the location. It is frequently used over CCTV, or Closed-Circuit Television.

    ANSI (American National Standards Institute) — This is a non-profit institute which manages the systems, products and processes of the US to be available internationally. The organization verifies the international availability of any related gadgets and services of their citizens.

    Anti-virus Software — Computer applications that are used to categorize and eliminate viruses, or other malicious software (or malware). Antivirus applications were primarily employed to battle viruses. Later antivirus applications can guard and protect the system against other types of malware.

    Apache — A popular open source web server application managed by the Apache Foundation. An alternative to Microsoft’s IIS (Internet Information Services).

    API (Application Programming Interface) — The compilation of data configuration, routines, and protocols supplied by libraries to maintain the construction of functions. This monitors the performance of objects within its environment where the computer language is sustained.

    Aprl.exe — A backdoor Trojan designed to replicate files and appear innocent to users. The process name is created to present backdoor functions for remote invaders. It copies a legitimate file to avoid detection from security software. It makes a user believe its intentions are positive but works in the background to get important details.

    ARPANET — The communications network that served as the foundation of the Internet. It was developed by US ARPA (Advanced Research Projects Agency) in 1967. The primary purpose was to link several university computers. APRANET took advantage of it and this led to the development of TCP/IP.

    AS 400 — Known as CL (Control Language), AS 400 is a programming language for the midrange platform of IBM which is related to the Job Control Language of IBM. The AS/400 instructions were created by IBM programmers to execute system level operations such as creating backups, compiling applications, exhibiting system details, as well as deleting files.

    ASCII (American Standard Code for Information Interchange) — A representation of codes in English characters assigned as a combination of numbers. ASCII uses a set of 7-bits for every character. The DOS OS employs high ASCII or extended ASCII for various characters.

    ASF (Advanced System Format) — A Microsoft digital video and audio container format. It is a component of Media framework for Windows. An ASF file is instituted on entity that is basically a byte sequence categorized by GUID indicator. It also comprises of entity that represents metadata.

    AsfBin — The utility used for joining, cutting, repairing, and editing files such as ASF WMV. It can be used for ASF files as well as for the WMA and WMV extensions. The AsfBin process is executed without recompression. Hence, the quality of the video is still excellent and the files remain untouched.

    ASP (Active Server Pages) — A script that is a server-side engine used by Microsoft for interactive websites. It is a free module for Windows Server as well as for Windows 2000. The functionality of the ASP is activated by COM (Component Engine Model). Active Server Pages used the .asp file extension.

    Aspect Ratio — The image height and weight expressed as X:Y (X to Y). To keep the aspect ratio when the image height increases or decreases the width should increase or decrease by the same percentage. It is generally used for movie presentation, digital television, standard video formats, still cameras, as well as consumer cameras. When an unequal ratio exists, the aspect ratio is done by adding the vertical and horizontal mattes of the original image.

    Assembly Language — Described as a programming language that employs symbolic and numeric code for representing a program of specific computer architecture. The representation is generally defined by programmers which are based on abbreviations. It was established in 1990s and is known as the 2nd generation language.

    ATI (ATI Technology Inc.) — A recognized supplier and designer of graphics cards and motherboard chipsets, later acquired by AMD. ATI was the chief manufacturer of graphics or video cards.

    ATM (Asynchronous Transfer Mode) — A technical method of transmitting electronic data. This is typically used in Networks, wide and local; it was intended for multimedia handling capability. This uses digital signal to organize data up to 53 byte cell. ATM network reaches a 10Gbps speed.

    ATSC (Advanced television System Committee) — An HD television standard. It possesses a theater quality of audio since it uses an AC-3 Dolby Digital structure that presents a 5.1 surround sound. An ATSC system obliges a broadcasting system to use the entire channel.

    Attenuation — Term used for the reduction of signal strength within the course of propagation. It occurs on every type of signal, analog or digital. It is a normal result of the transmission of signal on long distances. It is generally labeled in dB (Decibel).

    AUP (Acceptable Use Policy) — The set of protocols used by website owners and network to control the ways of using the established network. AUP files are directed for businesses, corporations, ISP, schools, and administrators to lessen the possibility of legal exploit. AUP should be precise and clear. It should also cover the important details regarding the system’s policy.

    Autodialer — Sometimes referred to as automatic calling unit, an autodialer is a device with the capability to automatically dial a certain telephone number in order to communicate. The Autodialer can transmit messages to the called party verbally.

    Autofill — A utility for various computer programs or applications. It frequently contains forms that automatically fill the field needed. Autofill is also used to fill up a certain section of an object, usually in animation and graphics application.

    Autolink — The hyperlink automatically added to a specific document. A specific document is recognized via the method of pattern harmonizing. An autolink can be executed by a server or client application in a circulated system of hypermedia.

    Autoresponder — Program used for electronic mail replies. It automatically sends a response to received mails. This computer program is also used as a marketing tool. The autoresponder can immediately send information about products. It comes in three types: server-based software, desktop software, and third party services.

    AVG — Term used by various Operating Systems for anti-virus software created by AVG Technologies. It include features such as periodic scans, checks for sent and received emails, capability to repair infected files, as well as virus chest and quarantine operations.

    AVI (Audio Video Interleave) — is a multimedia format for Microsoft Windows Media technology. AVI can include a video and audio data that permits simultaneous playback. It also maintains multiple audio and video streams. AVI is derived from RIFF (Resource Interchange File Format).

    AWStats — AWStats is a free analytical reporting tool. It is used to examine data on the internet. AWStats balances and inspect the data and log files and present the data in an HTML form. AWStats can run on various server log files such as WebStar, Apache, and IIS.

    AWT (Abstract Window Toolkit) — A component of Java for creation of graphics interfaces like scrollbars, menus, and other buttons. AWT may also serve as a toolkit for ME profiles. It incorporates the ability to launch selected desktop programs; for instance, Java Client application.

    Babuki — An instant messaging service that can add contacts, even those with different instant messaging services. It gives an advantage of well-organized contacts and message archives provided that it adds up all other IM services.

    Backbone — Simply described as the main wire or bus that links the nodes. It is often employed to illustrate the central network connection. The term backbone is frequently used in network communications as the spine of computers’ connectivity.

    Backlink — A website linked to a currently active Web page. It also is an external link of a website. A backlink can be an indication of a website’s significance or reputation for search engines. They are also known as inlinks, incoming links, inward links, or inbound links.

    Backscatter — The manifestation of particles, waves, or signals that bounces back into the source. It is one of the standards used in a radar system. Backscatter is used in fields such as medical ultrasonography, photography and physics.

    BackTrack — Linux live CD system developed in collaboration with ASC (Audio Security Collection) and Whax, and employed for Penetration testing. It uses the SLAX modular structure and design to permit the user to add kernels and tools. It was created by Max Moser and Mati Aharoni.

    Backup — A term used for making copies of information and files which can be used to restore when a loss in data occur. Backups are employed primarily for disaster recovery and to restore corrupted or accidentally deleted files.

    Bandwidth — The variation of the lower and upper frequencies; for instance, frequencies of communication channels, filters, and signal band. In computers, the bandwidth is the rate of data transfers being measured in bits/s, the quantity of traffic that occurs between websites and the Internet. Bandwidth is the central model of various fields such as signal processing, radio, electronics, and communication.

    Baud — Also known as modulation rate or baud rate it is the amount of signaling events created within the transmission standard every second in a modulated digital signal. Baud is linked to the gross-bit-rate. The unit of Baud is coined after Emile Baudot, the creator of Baudot Code used in telegraphy.

    BBS (Bulletin Board System) — A software application that permits users to login and link to operating system via terminal module. BBS was primarily used over a telephone line and modem interface. The user can execute functions such as uploading and downloading data and software, IM with various users, and news reading.

    Begin2Search — A BHO (Browser Helper Object) and a hijacker. It is a type of toolbar embedded within the Web browser that exhibits advertisements and fabricates search results. It stealthily downloads updates and applications, alters the browser setting and broadcast information to a third party server.

    BeleniX — An OS created using OpenSolaris. BeleniX can be intalled directly on hard drives. The project was initiated by Sun Microsystems in India. It was originally planned to operate as a dual structure, one for GNU over Solaris and one for Solaris system compatible.

    Beta Version — The title of software that is on its second process of testing and regarded as the preview. It includes every attributes and standard characteristic of the application. During this process, the author of the software gathers feedback from users regarding its stability and usability of the application.

    BHO (Browser Helper Object) — A type of DLL program created for Microsoft’s Internet Explorer web browser as a plug-in to execute added functions. It is usually loaded when new attributes occur on Internet Explorer. It was established in October 1997.

    BIEW — Multiple platform viewer that includes an editor, hexadecimal as well as disassembler model that operates on binary code. It uses Intel syntax for its disassembly function. It incorporate attributes such as APM Xscale/ Java/ AVR disassembler and others.

    Binary — A numerical system that represents only two symbols for its programming. These are 1 and 0, or known as base-2 system. Binary is an uncomplicated standard implementation in electronics industry that uses logic gates. Binary system is generally employed by modern operating systems.

    Biometrics — Also known as bio-identification biometrics refer to devices used for verification of a certain identity. It is used to identify humans by the unique character or permanent portion of their body. This is typically used by organizations for access management. The scanning of finger prints is one example of biometrics. Its capability varies upon how it was designed.

    BIOS (Basic Input/Output System) — The built-in application that verifies the system before accessing the hard drive. BIOS comprises of every code necessary to display screen, serial communication, hard drives, keyboards, and other functions. BIOS is located within a ROM chip to ensure its accessibility when disk failure occurs.

    BitDefender — A bundled security software application created by SOFTWIN. It was developed as a replacement to the AVX (AntiVirus eXpert). The BitDefender bundle incorporates an antivirus application for business, home users, and ISP as well as enterprise users. It can support Windows platform, Symbian OS, Mac OS, FreeBSD and Linux.

    Bitmap — An image format or memory configuration used to save digital images. It comes from the term “map of bits”. It is also referred to as the mapped arrangement of pixels. It other circumstances, a bitmap is also known as bit for every pixel.

    Bitrate — The overtime size of an audio or video flow. It can be used as a constant value of bits when encoding every second of a video or audio, or the standard required number/s. Bitrate is measured in megabits of binary kilobits where 1Kb=1024 bits.

    BitTorrent — A P2P file sharing protocol and application used for the allocation of data transfers over the network. Multiple parts of the file can be “seeded” from multiple peers on the network as allocated by the protocol and merged back into the complete file on “leecher’s” machines. It is often used for transfers of large files.

    Bitwise Operation — The execution of a single or two-bit model within the level of each bit. A bitwise operation on older microprocessors is somewhat faster on arithmetic functions.

    Black Hat — A term that typically refers to a type of hacker that conducts illegal or unauthorized activites on the network such as breaching into a system without proper authorization. The term is also popularly used for relatively less illicit activities such as, for example, using search engine optimization tactics which aren’t approved by the given search engine (also known as Black Hat SEO). The opposite of a Black Hat is a White Hat, referring to legitimate, authorized or widely acceptable activities and tactics.

    Blaster Worm — Also known as Lovesan or Lovsan, it is a worm that propagates on systems that operate on Windows 2003, 2000, and XP. Blaster Worm exploits the buffer overflow. It uses the patch MS03-026 and MS03-039 to be able to deliver the worm without accessing the attachment.

    BLOB (Binary Large Object) — Formerly the form of moving large data from one database to another without filters and errors. Nowadays, BLOB is a compilation of multimedia objects and other related data stockpiled into one unit.

    Block cipher — A key cipher which is usually effective or completed on group of bits. It accepts a 128-bit plain text block and launches an output of 128-bit of ciphertext block. The modification of the plaintext is accurately dealt with after the secret key is put.

    Blog — A shorter version of the word “weblog” with the same meaning. A blog is a web site which contains text, audio or video posts presented chronologically, much like a diary. Latest blog post is typically displayed first on the web site’s homepage. Blog posts can be about any subject and of various types, such as commentary articles, accounts of events, and so on. Video blogs are sometimes called vlogs while logs of very short blog posts (such as tweets on Twitter) are sometimes referred to as microblogs. The word can also be used as a verb whereas “to blog” means “to make blog posts”.

    Bluetooth — A wireless method used to swap data over limited distances, generating PANs (Personal Area Networks). It was primarily created as a variant to the RS232 cables. Bluetooth employs a radio technology known as frequency-hopping spectrum. Bluetooth splits up data and transmits each chunk using 79 frequencies.

    Blu-ray (Blu-ray Disc) — A high density optical storage device that is often used for storing and distributing High Definition video. It uses a blue laser to write a Blu-ray disc because it employs a 405 nanometers of wavelength. A BD-Rom player is used to play a Blu-ray Disc format.

    BMP File Format — Also known as DIB (device independent bitmap) format or bitmap is an image format used to save bitmap images for Windows OS. Numerous GUI’s employ bitmap within its graphics subsystem. It usually uses a .bmp or a .dib file extensions.

    BndDrive — An adware type of malicious software. It could display several kinds of advertisements, such as pop-up, pop-under, or side-bars. Its consumption of computer resources is high.

    Boot.ini — A plain text configuration file that resides within the system root, and is used by Windows XP upon start up. It is one of the necessary system files, and contains the settings necessary for the system to boot successfully. The tool Ntldr is responsible for locating the boot.ini.

    Boot Sector — Also known as bootblock, is a segment of the hard drive or other identical storage device containing standards used to start an application. It is also used to illustrate a particular program. These types of applications are executed after start-up.

    Boot Sector Virus — This virus specifically infects the layer of disks or hard drives that contain the Master Boot Record (MBR). As MBR reads the bootable partition of the Operating System, the Boot Sector Virus resides in the memory to infect other disks.

    Bots — Programs that operate an automatic task on the Internet. A bot generally executes a task repeatedly during operation. Search engines use indexing bots (like googlebot) to fetch information and files from various Web servers. Many web servers include the file named “robots.txt” that contains instructions for the indexing bots.

    BREW (Binary Runtime Environment for Wireless) — A program created for mobile phones by QUALCOMM. It can execute small application and download files, share photos, and send messages. BREW is used to create applications that can operate in a device with an included CDMA chipset.

    BRS — BRS (Business Radio Service) is also known as MMDS and Wireless Cable. It is a wireless technology used for broadband networking. BRS microwave band frequencies ranging from 2 GHz- 3 GHz. The broadcasting is done via set-top box and microwave transmitter.

    BSOD (Blue Screen of Death) — A blue colored screen with white text that informs a user that an error in the system has occurred. This screen is used to determine the cause of crash. It is usually shown after system termination and most likely needs reboot.

    Buffer — A storage area, frequently located in RAM. Buffers aim to operate as a temporary holding area, allowing the system to maneuver or manage data prior to the transfer. Various applications track buffer change in data and reproduce the buffer in a separate location. Buffers are commonly used when burning a compact disc or loading a streaming video on the internet.

    Bytecode — Transitional symbol of representation of the Java programming language. The bytecode is also a program generated within the Java Compiler. At any rate of hotspot runtime, a bytecode is a crucial part in the execution of the program.

    Bzip2 — A lossless file compression tool. It is only a file compressor, unlike the ZIP and RAR archiver. Since the UNIX system relies on split-external tool such as GnuPG, it employs Bzip2 for its popularity and stability.

    CAB — A native and compressed archive file structure for Microsoft. It is generally used for various installation engines and supports digital signing and compression. It was introduced to the public as Diamond. The .cab file extension is within the Microsoft tool and coined for the word ‘cabinet’.

    Cache — A reserve space that can be used within the computer memory or hard drive. Two classes of cache are disk cache and memory cache. Disk cache uses usual memory instead of SRAM, while memory cache uses the SRAM to access information.

    Caller ID — Also known as CID (Caller Identification), is a telephone tool which broadcast the number of a caller to the called telephone apparatus. The caller ID can also present the name of the calling party. It is also used to track and limit prank calls.

    CAN-SPAM or CAN-SPAM Act (Controlling the Assault of Non-Solicited Pornography and Marketing) — A public law that launches the standards used to deliver e-mail and involves FTC to implement its prerequisite. The FTC reports to the congress to publicize the rules to protect users from cell phone scams.

    CAPTCHA (Completely Automated Public Turing test to tell Computers and Humans Apart) — Programs that identify human minds and computer processors distinctly through a test or questions. Examples of these are distorted or fuzzy texts, usually encountered on verification of emails or other personal accounts.

    CAS (Conditional Access System) — A transmission media that broadcast digital signals via cable. The pieces of data are encrypted by the CAS standard to avoid unauthorized reception. CAS contains a specific set of modules for the client to be able to decrypt the information. It is commonly used for DVB-H market.

    CCMP (Computer Mode with Cipher Chaining Message Authentication Code Protocol) — A fixed module used by WPA2 standard and an elective module of WPA standard protocol. The CCMP is a vital element of an RSN network. It is an encryption protocol known as IEEE 802.11i.

    CCNP (Cisco Certified Network Professional) — The verification of skills and knowledge required to administer switches and routers including programs that incorporates wireless, voice, and security within the network. The curriculum of CCNP certification includes multileveled switched networks, Cisco network, and local and wide area networking.

    CDMA (Code Division Multiple Access) — A bundle of protocols used within the 2G and 3G communications. CDMA is a multiplexing protocol which permits signal to inhabit one transmission band, maximizing the bandwidth available. CDMA uses the UHF telephone structure operating at 800 MHz up to 1.9 GHz.

    CDPD (Cellular Digital Packet Data) — A method of transferring or copying packets. CDPD permits the user to collect and send data within the mobile’s coverage area. CDPD provides wide, high capacity, and quick services to cellular users since data and voice are both probable for transmission at any time.

    CD-ROM — A pre-recorded non-rewritable CD that contains files accessible by a computer or a specialized CD reader, typically used for storing and distribution of music, multimedia or other data.

    CGI — (Common Gateway Interface) The standard protocol used to create web pages or dynamic files. It uses a CGI script that manages the websites presentation. CGI is employed to web pages or search engines to exhibit result pages.

    CGIProxy (Common Gateway Interface Proxy) — Performs a Perl application through CGI that supports a non-parsed header script. It can be downloaded and installed on various Web servers. CGIProxy occurs to the user as a normal Web page that permits access to numerous websites.

    CIELAB — The full color space standard identified by the Commission of Illumination. It explains every color perceptible to human eyes and is generated to provide models to be employed as reference. CIELAB characterizes the color lightness, position between green and red, and its location between blue and yellow.

    CIFS — (Common Internet File System) A regular protocol which permits remote users and programmers on the internet to ask for several types of services or files. A CIFS may inquire for certain records or may send messages to an application which is being used in the server. This uses TCP/IP.

    ClamAV (Clam AntiVirus) — A tool-kit antivirus application for various Operating Systems. It is frequently used as an email scanner on mail servers. It was created for UNIX, and supports BSD, AIX, OFS, Linux, and Solaris, but later Windows as well. ClamAV includes an auto updater, line scanner, and daemon multi-thread.

    CLASSPATH — A type of environment variable for Java Compiler that informs the application about the location of class files to be imported or the files to be interpreted. Classpath is a very challenging application in Java.

    Click Fraud — An Internet crime related to pay-per-click online advertising. It generally involves the ad publisher clicking on his own ads to gain extra revenue. The result is the advertisers losing money on clicks which don’t represent genuine interest in what is being advertised.

    CLI (Command-Line Interface) — A tool that allows operating a computer system or launching applications using text commands. The operating system waits for instructions from the user inside the command line, then analyses the commands and executes them. Command Line Interfaces come in form of a virtual console or a virtual terminal running outside of a graphical user interface (GUI), or terminal emulators running as applications within the graphical user interface (e.g. xterm or gnome-terminal).

    Client-Side Scripting — Scripts running within the web browser, that is, on the client-side rather than the server-side. Client-side scripting is a vital part of Dynamic HTML that enables scripting of Web pages. It is frequently embedded inside HTML document.

    Clipboard — Software tool used for temporary file storage and data transfer between applications or documents through copy-paste commands. It is usually an element of GUI structure. It is frequently used to map the users input to a specific interface.

    CLNS (Connectionless Network Service) — An OSI Network Layer Service. CLNS directs messages to its particular destination. CLNS employs IS-IS for routing and supports values for Error Report. The CLNS incorporates split fields for representing the segment and total length which is used in reassembly.

    Cloaking — A practice of presenting web pages differently to a search engine spider than to a user’s web browser. It is known as one of the SEO black hat techniques. The server identifies a spider by its IP address or HTTP User Agent, and then delivers a fake page.

    Clone — An application or program intended to imitate a specific system. It is a separate and comprehensive duplicate of the system’s database which consists of vital information, DBMS application, as well as other programs. The chief purpose of cloning is to open system compatibility.

    CMMI (Capability Maturity Model Integration) — Serves as a guide to a project of an organization. It is used to set goals, improvements and guidance to all the tasks and segments of the projects. This assists in separation of all the organizational functions and appraisal for all actions that are in progress.

    CMYK — Also known as four colors or process colors, used in printing colors. CMYK operates by entirely or partly masking specific color on white background. The model is generally acknowledged as subtractive, since it subtracts the brightness for color white.

    COBOL — A programming language commonly used for data processing. This program is being used since it has been established until today since it is machine-independent and may be modified with Java programming language. COBOL stands for Common Business Oriented Language.

    .com — A gTLD (generic Top-level Domain) used in DNS. It is considered as one of the TLDs (top-level domains) such as .gov, .mil, .edu, .net, and .org. It was first originally managed by US DoD (Department of Defense).

    Comb Filter — The delayed translation of frequency to itself, in signal processing, which causes interference. The frequency response comprises of sequence of spaced points that gives the appearance of a comb. Comb filter occurs as feedback and feedforward forms, referring to the direction of signals before injecting to the input.

    ComboFix — A program with the capability of removing malicious software from an infected computer. Aside from deleting malicious software from the computer, this program could also be updated. Data, DLLs, and files related to infections may all be removed by ComboFix because of its built-in utilities.

    COM (Object Component Model) — A mechanism that allows Operating System and its elements to communicate. COM is used in programs such as Microsoft Office. It is used to generate a reusable application module to be able to build and link numerous applications.

    Compact Flash Card — An electronic data storage device where information and other vital figures may be saved. It may be connected to other electric portable devices directly or by an adaptor. This may be used by several gadgets like mobiles, laptops and digital cameras.

    Compiere — A CRM solution and ERP open source software used for SME distribution. The program is distributed under a GNU General Public License v2. Compiere is known as a model architecture development created to transform when business evolves. It is completely founded on the ADD (Active Data Dictionary) theory.

    Computer worm — A program that creates copies of itself in the system of the infected computer. These worms may be acquired through the Internet or electronic mail attachments. Computer worm may lag behind to do its malicious acts like sending copies of infected emails to contacts available in an account.

    Conductivity — The measurement of a certain material’s capability to conduct energy or current. A conductivity is described as the current density ratio to the strength of electric field. A conductivity of a metal is high and has low resistance.

    Confidence Game — A method of cheating a party by making him believe a fraud. The trickster requests the suspect to perform a certain task by deceiving him with bank savings interest or any interesting subject that could catch the suspect’s attention. When the confidence of the victim is gained the trickster can exploit it for own benefit.

    Content Filtering — Offers assistance to other tools in order to manage the course of information entering and exiting the mail stream. It uses various filtering tools to categorize messages. Content Filter assists in preventing confidential information leakage.

    Context Switching — The act of changing the assigned process to a computer. This is commonly done when multi-tasking or when it is switching one computer activity to another. This is achieved without causing disturbance to the other activity.

    Control Panel — A component of Windows GUI that can manipulate and view the general system settings as well as controls through applets. It can be used to add and remove application, shifting accessibility preferences, and user account management. The applets are saved as CPL file extension within appqiz.cpl of sys32.

    Cookies — Also known as HTTP cookies, they are packets of delivered text from a server to client, and broadcasted back every time the client accesses the server. It is usually used for session tracking, authentication, and maintaining data regarding the user. The word cookie was conceptualized from “magic cookie”, from UNIX.

    CorelDRAW — A graphical editor created by Corel Corp. It is also known as the Corel Graphics Suite. CorelDRAW executed the use of vector-based editor such as node-edit tool that executes on various objects. It incorporates wide variety of editing tools which permits the user to manage colors, contrast, and CMYK and RGB.

    COS (Chip Operating System) — The series of directions created with codes which are permanently implanted in a smart card. This is also called ROM Mask. It has 8k to 64k range of capacity.

    CPA (Cost per Action) — A pricing model for online advertising in which a payment is only received once a specific action is completed (such as signing up to a page, filling out a survey, and so on).

    cPanel (Control Panel) — A Web-based control panel for Web hosting. It is intended to abridge management of websites. The cPanel is responsible for Web management and its interfaces. It was primarily used in speed hosting. It features a Web Host Manager and an auto-upgrade.

    CPU (Central Processing Unit) — An electronic part of a computer that routes all the computer applications being called for execution. It carries out the data for computation in order to achieve the sending of information to the main memory through system bus.

    CQT (Critical to Quality) — A worksheet that permits the whole team or group to save essential data about the CTQ features. CQT represent the characteristics of a certain process or product. The worksheet aids the company in guaranteeing customer satisfaction.

    CRL (Certificate Revocation List) — A serial number record which has been canceled or which are no longer valid. In relation with PKI, the CA who issues the certificates is also one who timely publish the CRL.

    CRM Software (Customer Relationship Management Software) — A group of applications that are intended for managing customer information used by enterprises. This software helps businesses control or manage all their client records, it provide easier tracking of all their stored data.

    CRT (Cathode-Ray Tube) — The technology used for older generations of computer monitors and televisions. It employs an electron ray within the back of the tube. When the ray passes across the monitor it lights up the glass tube to activate the segments needed to display the entire image.

    Cryogenics — The study of extremely low temperature production as well as behavior of materials that are subjected to these temperatures. Cryogenics uses Rankine and Kelvin scale rather that Celsius and Fahrenheit. Cyrogenics operate on temperature below -150 degree Celsius.

    Cryptanalysis — The process of understanding the secret code of systems called cipher or ciphertext, and studying its limitations, in order to find its corresponding plaintext. It recognizes ciphertext, cryptosystem, or cipher.

    Cryptology — The mathematics of algorithm, formulas, and number theory that emphasizes the cryptanalysis and cryptography. It is principally used to alter vital and secured information in a way that an untrained user will have difficulty to decipher. It uses a particular equation to structure the foundation of cryptography.

    Cryptosystem — The term comes from the terms “cryptography” and “system”. It is any system that does cryptography functions. These kinds of systems are used for security purposes, such as encrypting e-mail. It uses certain methods to provide protection to data that needs to be locked.

    CSNET (Computer Science Network) — Established in 1980s by National Science Foundation, CSNET was primarily used by universities to link Computer Science dept. universally. It contains three elements: the name server, the phonenet system, and TCP/IP tunnel x.25. It was designed as an ARPANET extension.

    CSS (Cascading Style Sheet) — A type of computer language, known as the style sheet language, used to describe the formatting and the look of information presentation written in a specific markup language. It was intended to allow separating the content from how it is presented. CSS is often used to style pages written in XHTML or HTML, as well as XML, XUL and SVG markup languages.

    CSTN (Color Super Twist Nematic) — LCD equipment based upon the extensive matrix, which presents a 100ms display response time as well as 140 degree angle to view. CSTN was created in 1990’s. The extensive matrix of the CSTN is known as HPA (High-Performance Addressing).

    CTCP (Client-To-Client Protocol) — A type of contact among internet relay chat clients (IRC). This protocol may be used to instruct messages which are usually not allowed by other raw IRC protocols.

    Cyber Criminals — Internet intruders who create a number of techniques (malicious software embedded in legitimate software, fraud selling via internet, etc.) on how to fetch personal information like credit card numbers, its passwords, bank accounts or other major information which they may use to benefit from.

    Cyber — Product created by CDC (Control Data Corporation) for mainframe-category supercomputers. In its early days, Cyber was the choice for mathematically and scientifically intensive computing. It incorporates applications such as stress analysis, probabilistic analysis, electromechanical analysis, radiation modeling, and academic computing.

    CyberSquatting (Domain Squatting) — Trafficking, registering, or utilizing a domain name that matches or is linked to someone elses trademark or a popular name in order to profit from it. A cybersquatter may seek to sell the domain name at a much higher price than its purchase price, often to the very entity to whom the trademark belongs or with whom the name is generally associated.

    Cydoor — A program typically embedded into programs downloaded from the Internet. It is an adware application which installs itself into the downloaded program to act as if it is a legitimate component of it. Advertisement is the sole purpose of this program.

    DAM (Digital Asset Management) — DAM is responsible for retrieving, storing, and interpreting all digital resources, like music, photos, videos and other multimedia files. The DAM is also intended for all file backup, archiving, optimizing, renaming, relocating and other organizing procedures.

    Database (DB) — An electronic collection of records and data stored in the system. This is a location where system files are filed according to the database models. It is also considered as the filing system where computer programs may find the bits of needed information.

    Data Link Layer — The standard protocol layer that transmits data along the neighboring node of network over a WAN or nodes within LAN section. It presents a way to transmit files between units and could correct setbacks that occur within the physical layer. Data Link Layer also provides the operation of multimedia access control.

    Data mining — A method of getting information or records from a huge amount of data. This has become a technique for detecting fraudulence, surveillance, discoveries or other important conditions that need profound detection. It is used to reveal patterns in data. This is the search of sensible records from certain data.

    Data Recovery — The protocol of retrieving data from failed, corrupted, or damaged storage media. Usually the data are recovered from DVD, RAID, Storage Tape, Hard Disk, as well as other electronics. The retrieval may be implemented due to logical or physical damage of the device.

    Data Type — The characteristic of data that informs the system regarding what type of data is being processed. It is also described as a group of values as well as the acceptable procedure within these values. It usually merges multiple components of valid operation to define an original data type.

    DAT files — Data files that consist of data using ASCII file format. DAT files can be accessed via numerous programs. For instance Microsoft Notepad and Microsoft Word, as well as Microsoft Excel, since various DAT files are CSV files.

    DBS (Direct Broadcast Satellite) — A satellite TV configuration that transmits direct signals from a geostationary satellites. The bits of information are broadcasted through microware frequencies. DBS is an updated version of the DTH (Direct-to-Home) services. The mechanism directly captures a microwave signal from source to a standard TV set.

    DCE (Data Circuit-Terminating Equipment) — A mechanism located between the transmission circuit and DTE (Data Terminal Equipment). It performs tasks such as coding, signal conversion, line clocking, as well as being an element of intermediate tool. DCE communicates with RS-232 and other communication standards.

    DDoS Attack (Distributed Denial of Service Attack) — Takes place when several systems cooperate to overflow the resources of a certain system. This could be controlled by an attacker, with the possibility of using hacked units and controlling them to flood a target system. There are several methods that an attacker may use to do this type of assault.

    DEA (Data Encryption Algorithm) — An algorithm block code that is the standard of the United States government. DEA makes use of keys in 64-bit where approximately eighty eight percent are chosen independently.

    Debugger — An application used to examine and repair other computer programs installed in the computer. This could change the operations of a running application. The debugger usually works when an application crashes.

    DECSeerver — The orchestrated Terminal Servers created by Digital Equipment Corporation. The DECServer is used for Linux with Linux-DECnet project. It uses a solitary 10Bases terminal server with 8 serial port and Ethernet port. The server must download the required boot image through MOP protocol.

    Deep Web — Also known as invisible Web or Deepnet, it is the part of the web that is not indexed by conventional search engines, and is therefore not part of what is known as the Surface Web. It is distinct from the dark internet in so far as the deep web is reachable through the internet whereas the dark internet includes devices that are no longer reachable.

    Defragmentation — A method of gathering the noncontiguous fragments to form into one intact file so as to save more space. Another purpose of defragmentation is to save time whenever a user is accessing a file or data. It usually makes a system respond quicker.

    DES (Data Encryption Standard) — A protocol for the encryption of information chosen by FIPS and NBS. It is founded in the 56-bit symmetric algorithm. Its algorithm is practically secure via Triple DES. It has been used in the modern perceptive of cryptanalysis and block cipher.

    Device Driver — An application that controls a specific device connected to the computer. It manages interrupts that occur in the software and retains settings of hardware devices.

    DF (Disk Free) — The standard UNIX command used to show the quantity of disk space available. DF is frequently executed by accessing running mtab or through statfs. Disk Free primarily appeared in UNIX AT&T version 1.

    DHCP (Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol) — A network protocol used by devices to acquire configuration file from IP network. The protocol trims down the system administrator task, permitting other devices to be link on a network. DHCP was described as the standard protocol in RFC 1531. The configuration of DHCP is also suggested for servers.

    Dial-up — An Internet access that uses a telephone line to link to the Web. It uses a modem linked to a phone line and dials the ISP’s module to set up modem-to-modem connection. The modem is used to direct data packets between the PC and the Internet.

    Dictionary Attack — A protocol used to crack a security system, particularly a system with passwords. The invader methodically checks for every potential password. The term “dictionary” refers to the capability of the invader to try every word in the dictionary to gain the necessary password.

    Digital WaterMark — A blueprint of specific bits injected within a video, audio or digital image that will recognize the copyright information of a file. Its sole purpose is to provide protection in a digital format. Digital Watermarks are invisible and the representation of bits are scattered all over the files.

    Direct3D — A component of DirectX API from Microsoft, available for Microsoft Windows. Direct3D is a fundamental element for API graphics on Xbox gaming systems. It is used to render 3D graphics and permits applications to execute in full screen. It employs hardware acceleration to allow the whole rendering to accommodate even graphics acceleration.

    DirectDraw — An application used for 2-D hardware-accelerated graphics. It is used to exhibit hardware and still retains the compatibility with GDI (Graphics Device Interface) of Windows. It is a memory manager used to display devices and system memory. It can support BLITS (Bit-Block Transfer), multiple buffers, overlays, and direct video buffers.

    DirectInput — An API used to interface input devices and to manage device’s force-feedback. It is bundled with DirectX SDK. It executes a program used to recover information from an input apparatus via action mapping.

    Disassembler — A computer application whose task is to convert the machine language to assembly language. This gives the user an easier way to understand how an application works, and allows it to be modified.

    DiSEqC (Digital Satellite Equipment control) — A particular communication standard used between a small dish rotor or multiple dish switches and the satellite receiver. DiSEqC depends only on coaxial cable to broadcast a power, and a bidirectional signal. It is frequently used for control switches, and attuned to actuators employed for C-band dishes.

    Disk Storage — The type of storage equipment where the information is saved on a disk drive. It uses a device used to retrieve and record data. This storage can be a hard drive, floppy drive, optical discs, or removable drives.

    Distributed Computing — The science of solving a large problem by simply sorting parts of the problem and distributing them to several computers for solution. Each solution by all computers is then combined to solve the major problem.

    DivX — A video decompression / compression set-up that permits video files to be compacted. A DivX file format can save a whole movie on 700 MB compact disc. It employs an MPEG-4 structure to balance the quality of the film and file size.

    DLL (Dynamic Link Library) — The implementation used by Microsoft for its shared library model within Windows and OS/2. The libraries use DLL extensions as well as OCX (with ActiveX control), or DRV extension for legacy drivers. It contains data and code that can be used by other programs simultaneously.

    DLP (Digital Light Processing) — Technology used for video projectors. The image will be generated by tiny mirrors resting within the DMD (Digital Micromirror Device). Every tiny mirror represents and corresponds to the required resolution needed for the image.

    DMS (Document Management System) — A computer program that is used for managing any form of electronic documents. It provides a more comfortable way of locating and accessing records. It reduces time spent on finding documents.

    DMX512 — The EIA-485 communication protocol generally used to organize stage effects and lightings. The technology was created by USITT’s Engineering Commission. The DMX512 was primarily created as a common denominator standard for specific interfaces. DMX512 is a unidirectional application.

    DNS (Domain Name System) — An Internet system that resolves a domain name into an IP address. Since domain names are consisted of letters, numbers and symbols, they are much easier to recognize. DNS is also described as Digital Nervous System, developed by Bill Gates to illustrate the connections of systems, which is used to understand and obtain data.

    DOLAP (Desktop Online Analytical Processing) — An online business intelligence application, which includes the capability to obtain small cubes of data from the server and execute multidimensional calculation while detached from the server. This attribute is practical for mobile users.

    Dolby Digital — The succession or group of technologies used for audio compression created by Dolby Laboratories. Dolby Digital, also known as AC-3, uses predefined channels of up to six separate sounds, the five channels being the normal-range of speakers and one for sub-woofers. It supports 48 kHz of audio sample-rates.

    Domain Kiting — The practice of constantly deleting and registering a specific domain name to be able to possess the domain name without paying. Domain Kiting is also known as domain tasting, which make use of the AGP within the registration of the domain name.

    DOS (Disk Operating System) — An operating system linked to the IBM PC market in 1981 up to 1995. It is also referred to as MS-DOS, shorthand for Microsoft disk operating system. It was created by Microsoft as the standard OS for IBM personal computers.

    Dreamweaver — Adobe application used for the development of web contents. Dreamweaver supports Windows OS and Mac OS and includes support for JavaScript, CSS web technologies as well as PHP, ASP, and ColdFusion languages. The application was created by Macromedia and purchased by Adobe System.

    DRM (Digital Rights Management) — The standard technologies used by manufacturers, publishers, and copyright owners to border out the usage of devices or digital media. DRM is used to avoid unauthorized duplication of digital media files or devices to preserve artistic reliability.

    DSA Digital Signature Algorithm — A gadget which could be connected to a computer in order to sign electronically. It is used for the (DSS) Digital Signature Standard. This corresponds to hand written signatures. It is difficult to forge therefore makes the sender believe that the message has reached the right recipient.

    DSL (Digital Subscriber Line / Loop) — A method of transmitting digital data through cables of telephone networks. This allows the use of internet via the telephone line and the use of the telephone line with typical telephone use at the same time. It splits the high and low frequency to allow both uses.

    DSN (Data Source Name) — A source of Open Database Connectivity (ODBC) that consists of records of specific database needed by ODBC to connect to the database. DSN includes vital database information like the name, directory, passwords, or identifications of the user.

    DSP (Digital Signal Processing) — A standard protocol responsible for the representation of bands via symbols or series of integers as well as the processing the signals. It incorporates fields such as speech and audio processing, radar and sonar processing, processing digital images, processing signals for communication, and sensor processing. DSP frequently evaluates or filter analog and digital signals via a converter.

    DSS (Decision Support System) — Software that was constructed for helping decision makers settle on problems. These are computer applications that may provide more data, knowledge, documents or any form of information that adds up to a decision maker’s idea in order to provide more progress to the decision making.

    DTE (Data Terminal Equipment) — The end mechanism used to translate information to a signal. A DTE tool is used to communicate with DCE (Data Circuit Terminating Equipment). The equipment functions in harmony with the link procedure. It can be a multi-linked subsystem or single equipment that operates the needed functions to communicate.

    DTMF (Dual-Tone Multi-Frequency) — Signaling employed for telecommunication within voice band channels. The DTMF for telephone is recognized as Touch-Tone dialing. It is also used in cable television channel which designates the beginning and end times of advertisements. The loud DTMF is employed between the advertisements of cable channels.

    DVB (Digital Video Broadcasting) — A protocol used internationally for digital television. Its standards are managed by the DVB Project. The DVB sub-protocols are illustrated within the book of DVB standards. Various elements of DVB are licensed and patented, including the MPEG audio and video coding.

    DVD (Digital Versatile Disc) — An optical storage disc used for data and video storage. A standard DVD wavelength is 650 nm. DVD can store of up to six times of data than a compact disc.

    DVD Region — DVD Region Numerous DVDs are encoded with a specific DRM codec that restricts the area in which it could be played. A DVD that has no region codec is known as all region discs, which is accessible to every DVD players. The sole purpose of the region codec is to permit film studios to manage the aspect and release according to region.

    DVI (Digital Visual Interface) — A standard video interface intended to take advantage of the quality of digital devices (i.e. visual display such as projectors, flat panel and LCD among others). It uses a digital procedure for the binary data to be transmitted in pixels. The DVI will read every binary and apply the brightness to a corresponding pixel.

    DWDM (Dense Wavelength Division Multiplexing) — The optical technology employed to maximize the bandwidth for optical fiber backbones. DWDM operates by transmitting and mixing multiple signals at the same time via different wavelengths within a single fiber. This method will transform a single fiber into virtually multiple fibers. It can transmit data using 400 gigabytes per second.

    EAP (Extensible Authentication Protocol) — The worldwide structure that is used by point-to-point connections and networks for authentication. The EAP is more commonly known for the validation of the wireless networks although it is also capable of authenticating wired LAN.

    EBCDIC (Extended Binary Coded Decimal Interchange Code) — An 8-bit encoding standard used within IBM mainframe as well as IBM midrange operating systems. EBCDIC was created to expand the encoding of binary in its time. It is also used by modern platforms for reverse compatibility.

    ED4W — A full editor or programming IDE (Interactive Development Environment) that supports various computer languages. It incorporates editing capacity as well as built-in Database Source Engine that traces every method, class, and module that enables the user to jump on specific functions. ED4W makes navigation easier within the large database of codes.

    EDGE (Enhanced Data Rates for Global Evolution) — An improved GPRS standard used to obtain rich content data. It broadcasted four times faster than conventional transmissions. The speed of an EDGE network depends upon various aspects, such as service outages, traffic volume, signal strength and the Internet speed.

    EEPROM (Electrically Erasable Programmable Read-Only Memory) — A microchip that saves data which can be erased and rewritten. EEPROM cannot be rewritten selectively; instead, the whole microchip must be erased to update its files. EEPROM is frequently used by various BIOS chips for their system settings.

    EIDE (Enhanced IDE) — The standard for storage device interfaces also known as Parallel ATA, and sometimes referred to as Fast IDE or Fast ATA. It can support 4 Mbps up to 16.6 Mbps of data transfers. It was later superseded by Serial ATA (SATA).

    EIP (Enterprise Information Portal) — A structure used for integration of information, people, and processes within an organization. It offers a protected cohesive entry point in form of a web user interface. Various EIP applications are used to rapidly deploy and develop a company’s enterprise portal.

    Elasticity — A division of science that studies the elastic properties of a material. Elasticity can be described as a property of a material that deforms via stress and returns to the original shape upon the removal of stress.

    ElcomSoft — A company that dedicated to building and creating data recovery and computer security software. ElcomSoft’s standard products include password recovery applications and eBook processing software. The company supports various Microsoft applications.

    E-learning — A training program conducted through the Web. This is a method of developing skills and knowledge through online presentations and courses. This program also entertains questions and suggestions.

    Electronic Voting — Allows people to vote electronically using certain types of punch cards or other optical voting systems. This incorporates counting of votes and their broadcast by using networks, telephones and Internet connections. E-voting can speed up voting and counting of ballots, but also carries a risk of voting fraud.

    E-mail Address — Internet location to which electronic mail is delivered. Majority of e-mail addresses employ the SMTP (Simple Mail Transfer Protocol) described in RFC 5322 and RFC 5321 Internet Standards. When the server receives an e-mail, the server will deliver the e-mail to an e-mail inbox associated with the e-mail address.

    E-mail Client — Also known as MUA (Mail User Agent) or an email reader, it is a computer application used to send, receive, and organize emails. It is also recognized as the acting client agent that manages email servers. Frequently a web application that offers these functions and capabilities is also acknowledged as an email client.

    Email — A procedure or technique of creating, storing, or transmitting text-based messages to be delivered via a digital system. Today e-mail structures are based upon a forward-and-store model when a server receives and forwards messages to various personal computers. Originally, the e-mail only contained text messages using the ASCII set of characters.

    E-mail Extractor — An application tool that is designed to pull out email addresses from local files, web pages, plain text, clipboard and address books. An E-mail Extractor collects all valid addresses and generates output files that comprise of legitimate addresses only.

    E-mail Scam — An action that swindles users through e-mail fraud. The scam generally takes the structure of confidence scam which exploits the naivety and greed of users. The scam often relies on users vulnerable to “get rich schemes”.

    Email Spam — Identical email messages sent in bulk to several recipients. It often takes a lot of space in email accounts. Spam mails may also contain malware or advertisements which may contaminate computers when activated.

    Embedded Links — Also known as associated links, embedded links comprise of links inside the body of a text. They can help present detailed information on a certain subject. Anchor text in embedded links is typically styled to be distinct from other text for easier accessibility.

    Emulation — A software simulation of an electronic system or a different operating system. Emulators can, for example, simulate a gaming console on a PC in order to allow games made for that console to run on the PC.

    Encryption — The procedure of converting plaintext or other information into an unreadable form through the use of algorithms or ciphers to protect its privacy and security. The outcome of the procedure is known as the ciphertext (the encrypted data). The act of reversing the encrypted form to become readable again is known as decryption.

    ERP (Enterprise Resource Planning) — Computer application used to coordinate and manage all resources, functions, and data from shared information stores of a business. ERP includes hardware and services that could be linked over a network. Its design permits an administrator to reconfigure or add modules to the system while protecting the reliability of the database.

    Error Codes — Enumerated messages representing various errors that may occur in software applications, useful fo error handling. Nowadays, there are Exceptions that replace Error Codes.

    ESA (Electronic Self-Assembly) — A process that permits a consistent pattern or formation of multiple layers of raw materials to form thin and functional films. ESA method entails simple dipping of specific material into solutions that contain the compounds needed to form the required material.

    Espionage — Spying, or accessing secret or confidential information about a person or an organization without permission and for the benefit of the individual or organization engaging in espionage. This is often coupled with hacking in order to gain access to such information.

    Ethernet — A group of frame-base system network technologies used for LAN. The term is from the natural concept of ether. Ethernet describes the signaling and wiring standards used for the OSI Physical Layer networking model. Ethernet is an IEEE 802.3 standard.

    ETSI (European Telecommunication Standard Institute) — The non-profit, independent organization that establishes standards for Information and Communications Technologies (ICT), used by european telecom companies. ETSI was generated by CEPT which is recognized by the EFTA and the European Commission. ETSI encouraged the construction of 3GPP.

    EV-DO (Evolution-Data Optimized) — A telecommunications protocol used for wireless transmission of information via signals, frequently used in broadband access. It uses multiplexing such as CDMA (Code Deviation Multiple Access) and TDMA (Time division Multiple Access) to make the most of the overall system. It was created as an advancement of CDMA2000.

    FaceBook — Social networking service managed by Facebook Incorporated, and created by Mark Zuckerberg, Chris Hughes, and Dustin Moskovitz. It is used for sending messages, sharing various types of content with friends, maintaining a social profile (also known as a timeline), managing events and communities, and social media marketing, among others.

    FAT32 — File Allocation Table (or a file system format) for various Windows Operating Systems, used to track every bit of information in the system. FAT32 is an evolution on FAT16 designed to be used on larger storage volumes. It is considered a legacy file system architecture.

    Fibre Channel — High-speed networking technology mainly used for connecting storage devices, used in the field of supercomputers, and Storage Area Networks (SAN). It can run through fiber-optic cables and twisted pair copper wires, and supports SCSI (Small Computer System Interface).

    Firewall — A virtual fence that protects computers from destructive forces. This may prevent viruses and pop-ups, advertisements, and other programs embedded with them to effortlessly break into a property. A firewall’s protection also depends on how the user has set it to be, which usually varies from low to high.

    Firmware — Firmware is the term used for small, fixed programs that manage numerous devices such as keyboards, hard drives, calculators or memory. Simple firmware exists in OTP/PROM or ROM, while the more complicated firmware can manage flash memory for updates.

    Fixboot — A command employed in the Recovery Console that carves a new boot partition into the specified system partition. Fixboot is typically available inside the Recovery Console of Windows systems.

    Flag — Bits used to save a code or binary value. Flags are found as a component of specific data configuration. Flag is also used to allocate or mark information configuration for upcoming processing.

    Floppy Disk — A disk that is used for storing data and is inserted into the floppy disk drive. The diskette, as it’s also known, has low capacity, is easily wrecked, and is barely ever used anymore.

    FORTRAN — A procedural, general-purpose programming language suitable for scientific and numeric computing. FORTRAN was developed by IBM for engineering applications, dynamics, weather prediction, as well as chemistry and physics. The language includes versions that add language extensions which maintain the compatibility with older versions.

    Framework — The practical structure of the design for specific software development. It could comprise of codes, programs, other applications, language, as well as tools used to join the software project.

    Free BSD — An OS based on the 386BSD branch of UNIX as well as 4.4BSD OS. It operates within Intel x86 computers, DEC Alpha, IA-64, NEC and Microsoft Xbox. It is characterized as “the unrecognized giant OS”. It operates as UNIX but, but is not a UNIX clone.

    Freeware — Software that is freely available for download and use although it may or may not be open source or free to redistribute or modify. The term was created by Andrew Fluegelman.

    FTA (Free-to-air) — Television or radio broadcasts that can be received by suitable devices and viewed or listened to for free, and without subscription. It is, however, geographically restricted since it is digitally encrypted. It is also sometimes delivered by satellite.

    FTP (File Transfer Protocol) — The network technology used to deliver information from one system to another. It is used for managing and exchanging data over a TCP network. FTP listens to port 21 for connections. From this connection, the client generates a stream that passes instructions on FTP server to be able to make the transfer.

    Funnel Web — Macro programming which enables the programmer to intertwine documentation and scripts together. The FunnelWeb is a tool used in the production quality of a programming language. It is also a general purpose preparation tool for various applications.

    G2mdlhlpx.exe — Trojan that contaminates the system. This malicious file is executed and established by the user from the internet. The process deals damage to the configuration and boot-up processes. It has the capability to halt automatic updates and firewalls.

    Gateway — The communication network that employs various protocols. It may also refer to protocol interpreter, fault isolator, and rate converters. Gateways are also known as protocol converter, which operates on various OSI layer model. The gateway should translate a protocol into a different one.

    GBE (Gigabit Ethernet) — A technical way of transferring Ethernet frames at gigabit rates per second through Local Area Network (LAN) or Wide Area Network (WAN). This makes everything on the network run quicker.

    Generic Programming — The method of programming where the algorithm is programmed in an easy-to-understand manner. It describes a specific type of programming that permits several parameters to avoid fixed scripting requirements. This technique allows common operations to be used in various programming.

    Ghost — The replica of an image dimmer to the primary figure. It is a specific setback for television that encounters a weak signal. Ghosting may occur due to mismatch impedance and multi-path distortion.

    GIF (Graphics Interface Format) — A bitmap file structure that can support 8-bits for every pixel, supporting up to 256 specific colors from a 24-bit RGB. GIF can support animation that can split 256 colors for every frame. GIF image format uses LZW (Lempel-Ziv-Welch) data compression.

    GIMP (GNU Image Manipulation Program) — An open source application and image editor used to process photographs and digital images. It is used to generate logos and graphics, color management, converting images into particular formats and so on. GIMP is also used for the creation of GIF files. Its tools can be accessed via dialog box, menu paths, and toolbox.

    GNOME Office — An open source suite of office applications that is offered by the GNOME project, primarily for the GNOME Desktop Environment. GNOME Office applications include AbiWord word processor, Evince document viewer, Evolution groupware and email application, Gnumeric spreadsheet application, Inkscape vector graphics application, and Ease for creating presentations.

    GNU — The name of a Free Software (as defined by the Free Software Foundation) operating system started by Richard Matthew Stallman. While most of the components of the operating system are created and functional the core, or kernel, of the system (called GNU Hurd) is still in development and not ready for prime time. This is why GNU components were joined with the Linux kernel to form GNU/Linux OS, or Linux for short. GNU Project offers a number of system tools and user applications.

    GnuPG (GNU Privacy Guard) — Often referred to as just GPG it is a suite of cryptographic software offered under the GNU General Public License, as an alternative to PGP. It uses the implementation standard RFC 4880 for GNU Projects.

    Gnutella — A well known file sharing application. Gnutella uses lists of working nodes that employs an updated cache compatible with GWC (Gnutella Web Cache), IRC, and UDP cache host. Once linked, the Gnutella client requests the working address list to be able to upload the data.

    Googlebot — A search bot or a search spider program used by Google to “crawl” web pages and documents all over the web in order to construct a searchable index for their search engine. Googlebot uses the “googlebot” agent string and a host-address of “googlebot.com”.

    GPRS — GPRS (General Packet Radio Service) – is a mobile information tool accessible for GSM mobile telephones. It is frequently illustrated as the 2.5G (Generation). GPRS is a packet-switched used for multiple users that use the same channel for transmission.

    GPS (Global Positioning System) — Global navigation using satellites. It uses constellation of 24 to 32 Earth Orbit Satellites which can deliver data in accurate microwave signal. GPS requires a key synchronization resource for cellular telephone network.

    Grayscale — Digital image format that describes only the intensity information of each pixel in which the strongest intensity produces white, and the weakest produces black. That’s why grayscale images are also known as black-and-white, monochrome, bilevel or binary images.

    Groupware — A set of collaborative programs that allow a number of people across the network (often co-workers) to cooperate on various tasks. Groupware offers a wide range of communications features including email, e-meetings, file sharing, calendar sharing, and others.

    GSM (Global System for Mobile Communication) — A standard that describes protocols for the second generation (2G) of digital mobile communications networks for mobile phones, established by ETSI (European Telecommunications Standards Institute). GSM employs TDMA (Time Division Multiple Access), compresses and digitizes data, and sends it through a specific channel that operates at 900 MHz to 1800 MHz band.

    GUI (Graphical User Interface) — Allows users to interact with the functions of computers and electronic devices using graphical icons and indicators rather than only text. It was developed to make computing available to a larger number of people since textual command line interfaces typically require a steep learning curve. First computer with a GUI (often pronounced “gooey”) was Xerox Alto, but the first to bring GUI’s to mass market was Apple with its Lisa computer, and subsequently the Macintosh.

    GZIP — Free Software program used to compress and decompress files, written as a replacement for the “compress” UNIX utility for the same purpose. It was programmed by Mark Adler and Jean-Loup Gailly for the GNU project.

    Hack — A hack can be a quick fix or smart way to repair an application, or an inelegant or clumsy way into the solution needed to execute a program. Its modern meaning is linked with cracking, which typically refers to unauthorized breaking into a program or a system.

    Hard Drive — A disk or a storage device (usually with metal casing) that is responsible for storing all the programs and files being saved by computer users; it magnetically keeps information which has been saved by the user. This device has space limitations for data which ranges from hundreds of gigabytes to a few terabytes.

    Hash Function — A well-designed function that can translate variable or large quantity of information into undersized datum, particularly a single instance that could be presented in an array. Hash values, hash sums, hashes, and hash codes are known as the returned value of a hash function. These functions are used to speed up data comparisons.

    HD Upconverter — A mechanism that can transfer DVD signals directly onto HDTV without a transitional analog translation. This will advance the picture quality and overall resolution. The device enhances each frame of the DVD signal to equalize the required resolution needed for HDTV.

    Hex Editor — Also known as byte editor or binary data editor, it is an application that permits a user to manage binary files. The program used by Hex Editor is interpreted in hexadecimal values separated in classes of 16 ASCCI and 8 byte characters. Hex Editors created to manage parse, or sector, data drives and hard disks are known as Disk Editors.

    HijackThis — Also known as HJT, it is a tool for removing Windows spyware. The application uses a technique for identifying malicious software. It scans the operating system and generates records of sypware allowing the user to fix these threats.

    HIT — A page hit is a single request of a file from a web server, which can be a web page, an image, a script, a stylesheet or other files.

    Hitbox — A web analysis and counter tool launched by WebSideStory, and initially used for adult web sites, later acquired by Omniture, which was then acquired by Adobe. It was popular in the industrial sector as a complete integrated metrics system for monitoring web traffic.

    Honeypot — A trap meant to detect, deflect or otherwise counter unauthorized use of information systems by luring attackers with seemingly valuable resources. It appears as if it is a part of a network, but is actually separated and monitored.

    Hostname — The name of a host in a particular network, used to classify a specific host in numerous structures such as email, World Wide Web, or Usenet. Hostname is used by numerous systems, such as SMB, DNS, NIS, and others. When a hostname without any context is presented, it is assumed that the Internet is the network and the naming system is DNS.

    Hot Bar — A program that mounts a toolbar into a web browser. Its purpose is to send information to third parties after having spied on which websites a user visits, or which phrases are searched for. The aim of the personal information report is to display targeted ads on the user’s system.

    Hotlinking — A process of directly linking to video, audio, image, as well as other files in a certain website from another web site. It is sometimes considered a way of stealing or leeching bandwidth from various websites, which is why it’s sometimes referred to as bandwidth theft. Most often it is loading an image from another web site within the current web site.

    Hotmail — Free web based email application managed by Microsoft, later replaced by Outlook.com.

    HPC (High-performance Computing) — Supercomputers or clusters of supercomputers allow for high-performance computing, or processing at highest capacities and speeds possible with the bleeding edge of current computer technology. It is especially used for complex calculations at great speeds. The term is generally used in scientific study.

    HSCSD (High-Speed Circuit-Switched Data) — The enhanced version of CSD, which is used for the data transmission of GSM mobile system. It can use 38.4 kbit/s, and 4 times the speed of CSD. The allocations of channels are prepared via circuit-switched mode. It can use several time slots at the same time to amplify information throughput.

    HSDPA (High-Speed Downlink Packet Access) — A standard employed for data transmissions in mobile telecommunications networks. It is acknowledged as the 3.5 generation technology. The protocol offers fast downloading for mobile devices. HSDPA advances the transfer of data faster than W-CDMA. It can attain of up to 8 to 10 Mbps transmission speeds.

    HSUPA (High Speed Uplink Packet Access) — An advancement on the WCDMA / UMTS uplink technology. It is used as the standard for 3GPP (3rd Generation Partnership Project). HSUPA is related to the HSDPA technology complimenting each other. HSUPA presents a higher data and voice performance.

    HSV (Hue, Saturation and Value) — A color system that uses input factor via solitary HSV cone. The presentations of the value of the pixels are linearly interrupted from start to finish of the HSV. The HSV standard is written in IDL programming language. Its source code is located within the lib subdirectory using hsv.pro.

    HTML (Hypertext Markup Language) — The principal markup language for the creation of web pages. It offers a way to illustrate configuration of the web page via a document. HTML is scripted using tags with angle brackets. It can be also used to explain the semantics and appearance of the web page, and can embed various scripts, such as JavaScript.

    HTML Redirect — An HTML meta tag that redirects the current web page to an address of another one after a specified delay in seconds. The meta tag is put in the head section of the HTML document.

    HTTPS — Secure HTTP, which is responsible for the decryption and encryption of a page request including the pages visited by Web servers. The HTTPS shields against remote attacks and snooping. Instead of the HTTP port 80, HTTPS uses the port 443 to link with TCP/IP.

    Hulu — An online service that offers commercial streaming of movies and television shows, available only in the US.

    HVAC — Short form for Heating, Ventilating, and Air Conditioning. This is a significant design in industries. It is intended for the proper ventilation of a buildingm and appropriate means of access of the cold and warm air stream. The conditioning is to provide the right amount of humidity and breeze inside closed spaces.

    Hyperlink — Also known as a link, it is a reference to another piece of data within a document, or to an entirely different document, that the user can follow by clicking or tapping on it.

    Hypertext — Digital text containing hyperlinks, and can also include images, tables, as well as presentational mechanisms.

    IBL (Inbound-link) — Viewed from the perspective of a given web page or hypertext document an inbound link is a hyperlink on another web page or hypertext document linking to the current one. It is the key of Web navigation since connections are inbound within point of view of target link. Today, various search engines categorize websites based on IBL.

    ICMP (Internet Control Message Protocol) — Its sole purpose is to present a response regarding the communication environment. It generally reports error messages during the routing of datagram. ICMP messages can be exhibited in situations such as when the datagram is incapable of reaching a destination.

    Icon — A computer icon is a pictogram designed to help users navigate a computer system much like traffic signs help drivers navigate traffic. It was first developed to make the interface of a computer easier for beginners. Computer icons come typically come in sizes ranging from 16×16 pixels up to 128×128 pixels.

    ICQ — AOL’s instant messaging program created by an Israeli company called Mirabilis, and first released in November, 1996. ICQ was the first online instant messaging application. Its name was coined from the phrase “I seek you”. ICQ messenger was acquired by AOL in June, 1998.

    ICT (Information and Communications Technology) — ICT includes all variety of devices that can send, retrieve, communicate or collect information. Small and huge devices, like mobile phones, televisions, radio, MP3 players, speakers, computers and all others software and hardware that are used for communication fall within the realm of ICT.

    ICV (Integrity Check Value) — The outcome of an integrity check of a file. The ICV generally employs HMAC (Hash Message Authentication Code) as well as MD5. It incorporates functions known as the SHA-1 hash operation.

    IDE (Integrated Development Environment) — An application that assists computer programmers with comprehensive software development features typically including a source code editor, a debugger, build automation, and sometimes a compiler, interpreter and intelli-sense coding features. An IDE can help make software development easier and faster.

    IETF (Internet Engineering Task Force) — A standard body that promotes and develops Internet standard protocols, relative to ISO.IEC and W3C, which deals with TCP/IP standard suites. The organization primarily operates on Internet’s foundation standards. Members of the organization are mostly volunteers and frequently funded by agencies of US government.

    IFF (Interchange File Format) — A generic file structure created by Electronic Arts to simplify the data transfer among applications. The IFF file format is constructed from portions of the “type ID”, and followed by unsigned 32-bit integer.

    IGN (Imagine Games Network) — A review and multimedia news web site that centers its interest on gaming. It contains a multitude of channels for gaming consoles, technology, TV, movies, comics, and so on.

    IKE (Internet Key Exchange) — A protocol used to establish a SA (Security Association) within IPsec standards. The IKE employs a Diffie-Hellman exchange to initiate shared session which defines cryptographic keys. IKE is founded within the Oakley standard. It uses UDP packets inside port 500, and obliges a 4-6 packets.

    Image Arcadia — An advanced system for multimedia management. This is an application used to make multimedia uploading an easier task. It allows a user to add photos, videos or other multimedia files to a website in a few clicks.

    Image Spamming — A method of email spamming in which text is embedded in image or picture files, which most anti-spam software ignore, because they are pictures and not text.

    Image Toolbar — A clone of the Internet Explorer’s feature that offers an easy and quick way to numerous image functions. The toolbar is executed and activated by moving a mouse pointer over an image. It displays within the corners of the image, and allows the user to save the image or execute other function.

    IMAP (Internet Message Access Protocol) — An Application Layer Internet protocol that allows an e-mail client to access e-mail on a remote mail server using a well known port 143. IMAP supports offline and connected modes.

    IMAX (Image Maximum) — The format used for motion pictures. It is also a projection format generated by IMAX Corporation. It has the capability of exhibiting greater quality of images and greater resolution than a regular system. 22 meters and 16.1 meters are the standard screens for IMAX.

    iMesh — A file and media sharing application that includes social networking features and supports multiple languages. It employs a centralized, proprietary, P2P network that uses ports 443, 80 and 1863. It was primarily used as a peer-to-peer ‘RIAA-accredited’ service. It also allows users to access non-copyrighted video and music files.

    IM (Instant Messaging) — Technologies and applications that allow for text-based and real-time conversations among users. Features include delivery report, reply recognition, ability to set an offline message, saving conversations for future reference, and other.

    Indexing Service — Services used to dig out contents of files and create a record to assist rapid searching. Indexing Service is capable of extracting property information and text from data within the local system or on a remote OS. It uses filtering elements that can filter by various file formats.

    Information Foraging — A theory that is used to understand how human beings search for information, based on ideas from optimal foraging theory that assumes humans have built-in foraging mechanisms evolved to help our animal ancestors find food. Understanding how people search for information helps improve usability of web sites and other user interfaces.

    Inline Linking — Another term used for “hotlinking”, piggy-backing, leeching, direct linking, or offline image grabs. It is the use of objects, such as images, hosted on one site within a web page of another site.

    Instancing — Rendering multitude copies of a particular mesh at the same time. Used primarily in graphics, it is usually used in objects such as grass, trees, or buildings. Since every piece of such data has different instances and parameters instancing is used to decrease the emergence of repetition.

    Integer Overflow — A result of trying to set up an integer within computer memory. It will occur if a mathematical operation tries to generate a numeric value larger than its presented storage. Integer overflow frequently occurs unnoticed by the contaminated application.

    Interactive Whiteboard — A relatively large interactive display that is connected to a computer in order to display the computer’s desktop. Users can then control it using a pen, a stylus, finger touch or other similar input devices.

    Internet Radio — Continuous audio broadcast, much like traditional radio broadcasts, streamed over the internet. Internet Radio is also known as net radio, web radio, e-radio, webcast or streaming radio.

    Intranet — A computer network that uses the Internet Protocol for sharing of information and computing services within an organization, but separated from the public internet. In contrast to the internet, which is a network between organizations and individuals, an intranet is a private network existing inside of a particular organization.

    Invisible Hack — A hack that allows instant messaging users to see the true connection status of users who’ve marked themselves as “invisible”, or hidden from view even while actually online. Typically the hack is accomplished by using a third party application that taps into an IM network (such as Yahoo! IM) or launching an application shared with the invisible user and watch for resulting connection messages.

    IP Address — A set of assigned identification numbers for devices which are part of a network. This numerical identification is unique and traceable by Internet users or other members of the network. IP addresses have the capacity to identify the specific location of sources in the topology of the routing system.

    iPhone — A modern smartphone designed by Apple Inc. It was the first mass market smartphone that featured a multitouch screen, and an attractive user interface with multiple applications. It runs the iPhone OS, later renamed iOS, which is based on a standard Mach kernel used to create Mac OS X.

    IP (Internet Protocol) — A primary communications protocol within the Internet layer of the Internet protocol suite, used to relay datagrams across the network. Its routing capability allows internetworking, and as such creates the internet. IPv4 is the first widely used and dominant version of the Internet Protocol, being succeeded by IPv6.

    IPv4 (Internet Protocol version 4) — The fourth generation in the progression of IP (Internet Protocol). The IPv4 is described as data-oriented standard used on Ethernet. The IPv4 offers file integrity shield via packet checksums. It was identified by IETF RFC 791.

    IRC (Internet Relay Chat) — A real-time application for text messaging or conferencing. It is created to be used for group chat forums, known as channels, and permits private message. IRC uses TCP and TLS open protocol. The IRC server can link to other servers to enlarge its network.

    IrDA (Infrared Data Association) — An organization that defines standards for wireless infrared communications protocols, and a term used to refer to that set of protocols. IrDA uses optical communication to transmit data. It is frequently used in medical instrumentation, palmtop PCs, laptops, measurement tools, and mobile phones.

    IR — IR- Stands for InfraRed. This is a method of transmitting data among computers or other electronic devices like mobile phones. This is usually only a short-range transfer of figures. This uses LED to produce the radiation. This may be switched on and off. The IR does not go through walls and is usually only utilize indoors.

    ISA (Industry Standard Architecture) — A computer bus standard introduced with IBM’s Personal Computer for use with IBM PC and compatible computers. It was created to support Intel 8088’s processor’s 8-bit external data bus, later extended to support 16 bits for Intel’s 80286 processor, and then again extended for 32-bit processors in form of EISA (Extended Industry Standard Architecture) before it was superseeded by newer standards.

    ISAKMP (Internet Security Association and Key Management Protocol) — A protocol for establishing a framework for Security Associations and cryptographic keys on the internet, designed to be key exchange independent. It enables the parameters of IP Security channels and the mapping of various channels to VPN instances.

    ISP (Internet Service Provider) — A business that offers internet access and related services. Internet access is provided by means of a particular data transmission technology suitable for use with the Internet Protocol, such as DSL, dial-up, satellite, fiber-optic cables and so on. Related services may include personal web hosting, storage, email addresses, various security features and so on.

    ITIL (Information Technology Infrastructure Library) — Ideas and rules about IT management, procedures and progress. ITIL comes in books which discuss certain IT topics; describing IT practices and other vital data related to Information Technology.

    IT (Information Technology) — The design, study, implementation, support, development, and management of computer-based data structures such as computer hardware and software programs. IT harmonizes with any software to store, convert, transmit, process, and recover applications. It generally illustrates a technology capable of communicating and distributing information.

    ITSM (Information Technology Service Management) — A method of maintaining Information Technology standards of an organization in accordance with the concerns of its customers. This relates to all the quality related fields. Its main focus is customer’s satisfaction with the quality of products.

    iTunes — A multimedia player program used to access and organize videos and music files. It is required to manage and organize music on iPods and iPhones. iTunes can also be used to purchase and download music, movies, books, podcasts and so on via the iTunes Store.

    ITU-T (International Telecommunication Union – Telecommunications standardization sector) — A division of the United Nations’ ITU agency, which specializes in telecommunications standards. Its aim is to guarantee efficient and timely development of standards in all telecommunications fields worldwide, and defining tariff and accounting principles for international communication services.

    J2ME — A micro edition of Java2 Platform that allows programmers to take advantage of the Java language, including tools to create a typescript for wireless and mobile devices. It comprises of specialized virtual machine and programming specs that permit the encoded script to execute in mobile devices.

    JAR file (Java Archive file) — An archive file format used for the distribution of Java applications or libraries across the Java platform. It combines multitude of Java class files, related metadata and resources (such as text and images) into a single .jar file. JAR files are based on the ZIP file format.

    Java Card — Smart cards and similar small memory footprint devices such as SIM cards and ATM cards that can securely run tiny Java-based applications, known as applets. It is the smallest Java platform for embedded devices.

    JAVA RMI (Java Remote Method Invocation) — A Java API (Application Programming Interface), that performs the object-oriented equivalent of remote procedure calls (RPC), and supports direct transfer of serialized Java objects and distributed garbage collection.

    JDBC (Java Database Connectivity) — A Java API that describes how the user accesses the database. It presents a technique for updating and querying files within the database. The JDBC can be used by relational databases.

    JFS (Journal File System) — A journaling file structure created by IBM. JFS structure is used by AIX OS and presented in two versions, JFS1 and JFS2. In other OS, such as Linux, second generation JFS is used.

    Jiffy — Jiffy is the interval of a click of the system timer. The length depends upon the frequency interrupt for specific operating system. Jiffy may also refer to the alternating current between the times of the power cycle.

    Jitter — In electronics and telecommunications a Jitter represents an undesired deviation or variation from the expected periodic signal, typically relative to a reference source clock. It can be be found in the frequency of successive pulses, phase timing, width, and amplitude.

    JPEG — The process of compressing digital images. The compression can be adjusted to specific image quality and size. It usually accomplishes a ratio of 10:1 compression. JPEG compressions are commonly used in several file formats including JPEG/Exif and JPEG/JFIF.

    JPG — JPG is the file format used for very small image files. JPG is frequently used for camera’s digital memory cards. The file is generally compressed as 1/10 from its original size. It employs lossy compression meaning that the non-essential parts of the file may be lost without affecting the expected content of the file.

    JRE (Java Runtime Environment) — A library for Java Virtual Machines that includes elements necessary for executing applications and applets scripted in Java language. JRE also includes the Java Web Start that organizes independent applications and Java Plug-ins, allowing applications to execute within web browsers.

    JSP (Java Server Pages) — A tool that spawns a dynamic content with an application server or Web server. It presents a way to organize applets via Java plug-in, without translating every HTML sheet with its converter. JSP will be used to produce HTML sheets instantly using Java tools.

    JSwat — An open source graphical front-end to a Java debugger, programmed to use the Java Platform Debugger Architecture, also used by Netbeans, IntelliJ IDEA, and Eclipse.

    JunkChief — An application that stops spam and junk email from contaminating an inbox with the use of Bayesian statistical filtering. The application routinely filters email and keeps hold of the legitimate files. Deleted files are moved to the “Junk Folder”.

    Junk-Out — An anti-spam plugin for Microsoft Outlook email client application. It uses Bayesian statistical filtering. Spam mails are deleted from the inbox and moved to a specific folder, which Junk-Out would later delete automatically.

    JVM (Java Virtual Machine) — Compilation of data configurations and software programs that use a virtual machine for the implementation or execution of various scripts and programs. JVM executes via Java bytecode. It is frequently created through Java’s source code. It is also used for the implementation of other programming languages.

    Ka Band — Frequencies ranging from 27.5 GHz up to 31 GHz used for uplink, and 18-3 GHz to 20.2 GHz for downlink. The Ka band transmits more power than the C band and uses smaller dishes. Ka band’s higher frequencies are susceptible to signal setback from rainfall.

    Kazaa (Kazaa Media Desktop) — A P2P file sharing program that uses the FastTrack protocol. It is generally used to swap music files online, especially MP3. It is also used to broadcast documents, applications and videos.

    KDE (K Desktop Environment) — A Free and Open Source desktop environment for UNIX and Linux based operating systems. It is a part of the KDE Software Compilation. KDE also represents an international Free Software community that develops an integrated set of cross-platform applications.

    Kerberos — The uthentication protocol in a computer network, which permits communication within a non-secure network. Kerberos was created via symmetric cryptography that requires a reliable third-party. It primarily works as a client–server model and provides mutual authentication between the user and the server.

    Kernel — The central element, or a core, of various computer operating systems. It is responsible for running the computer’s system resources. A kernel offers the lowest-plane for its resources such as memory, I/O devices, and processors.

    Keylogger — Applications or keyboard-attached hardware which allow a party to monitor computer usage by recording key presses on a keyboard. This is usually done without the users consent.

    Knoppix — Knoppix STD is a Linux distribution CD founded on Knoppix which concentrates on security mechanisms. In incorporates a GPL tool which includes authentication, encryption, password cracking and assembler. It was published on 24th of January 2004.

    Ku band (Kurtz-under band) — Frequency ranges used in satellite communications for broadcasting and editing satellite TV. The band is divided into multitude segments and propagated to specific regions, as predefined by International Telecommunication Union. The Ku band frequencies are 11.7 GHz to 12.7 GHz and 14 GHz to 14.5 GHz.

    LAN (Local Area Network) — A computer network that covers a small area, such as an office, home, or school, connected with each other using a common connection.

    Launchpad — A web site and web program that supports the development of open source software. It is created by Canonical Limited. It contains several parts, such as; the source code hosting that employs Bazaar file structure, a bug tracker, translation, a blueprints system, and answers.

    LCD (Liquid Crystal Display) — A technology used for various portable computer screens, laptops, smartphones, smart watches, calculator screens, and so on. LCD employs a polarizing object that has liquid crystal ingredient between them. When the crystal is electrically charged, it aligns the liquid element of the crystal so it acts like a shutter that blocks or allows light to pass.

    LDAP (Lightweight Directory Access Protocol) — An application protocol for accessing and maintaining distributed directory information services over a TCP/IP network. Directory services can involve a compilation of records, typically in a hierarchical structure.

    LEAP (Lightweight Extensible Authentication Protocol) — A specific wireless LAN protocol that includes dynamic WEP input and authentication. LEAP permits the client to re-verify, which broadcasts new WEP input. The authentication method was created by Cisco Systems to be used between RADUIS server and client.

    LED (Light-Emitting Diode) — A tiny electronic light. LED was founded and initiated in early 20th century. LED is founded on a semiconductor diode. Electrons are combined to generate light when forward biased. It offers various advantages such as faster switching, longer lifetime, low power consumption and smaller size.

    Lightbox — A JavaScript program used in displaying large digital images via modal dialogs. Lightbox employs an easy-to-understand interface. It uses script.aculo.us and various JavaScript Libraries to allow the positioning and animation to shrink the code dimension.

    Line Art — An image that comprises of curved and straight lines positioned against the background without the hue or darkness in colors. Line Art stresses the outline and form over shading, color, as well as texture. In Line Art, the solid areas are also used as a supplement to the lines.

    Linker / Link Editor — A program that lifts an object executed by compilers to combine with another executable program and make it one. This allows the creation of set of links to be positioned on an object. The link may consist of words or pictures depending on the editor preference.

    Link Farm — A compilation of websites that hyperlink to each other. Link farms are generally created via automatic services or programs. It is a type of index spamming of search engines. It is also known as spamexing or spamdexing.

    Linux — A generic term that refers to a Unix-like OS (GNU) but based around a Linux kernel. Linux is particularly recognized for its server capabilities, but can also be installed on a wide variety of hardware from mobile phones and embedded devices to super-computers.

    Live CD — A CD that contains a bootable OS that can run even on computers without a secondary storage device. The term “Live” reflects the fact that a Live CD contains a fully functional and complete operating system that is already “live”, or installed and ready to run.

    Live Video Streaming — The instantaneous broadcasting of video signals over the Internet. It is particularly used today for news broadcasting, advertisements, multimedia, monitoring, and other services. The file is broadcasted in compressed form over the Internet and requires an application to decompress the data.

    LMDS (Local Multipoint Distribution Service) — A wireless service tha employs FCC standard frequencies within 27.5 GHz up to 31.3 GHz of electromagnetic spectrum. It is used for point-to-point and line-of-sight transmission. The LMDS equipment supports up to 800 megabit for every second.

    LNB (Low Noise Block Down Converter) — A mechanism connected to a satellite dish, intended to increase the signals needed. It can be administered to get signals with various polarizations. It is normally known as a parabolic antenna.

    LNX-BBC — A small Linux distribution used to restore or retrieve ailing operating system. Its files can be fitted inside a folder, burned onto a CD, which can then be cut into a business card form.

    Local Host (localhost) — A computer networking term that means “this computer”., referring to the local computer. Software applications and users can use “localhost” as a hostname for accessing the computers own networking services over its loopback network interface. On most computers localhost resolves to an IP address, the most commonly used loopback address.

    Logfile — Also known as a log, it is a file that records events happening within a running system in order to allow administrators of the system to understand its activity, and diagnose any problems that may arise. Logging into a logfile is especially useful when running applications that have little to user interaction, which is often the case with server applications.

    Logic Bomb — An application written and revised by the software owner to provide a specific result when an illegitimate or unauthorized user manages the application. Logic Bomb usually exists inside a program or as a component of a worm. Time and Date update is one of the activators of a Logic Bomb.

    Loopback — The process of routing a signal or a data stream back to its original source without intentional modification in transit. Its primary use is testing transmission or transportation infrastructure. Loopback is also the name of the local virtual network interface used by a computer to access its own network services.

    LRC (Longitudinal Redundancy Check) — The form of redundancy analysis that is applied separately to each parallel set of bit streams. The data should be separated into blocks of transmission. The term is useful to bit/bit streams. The LRC used for character sequencing must be computed using specific algorithms.

    LSASS (Local Security Authority Subsystem Service) — A protocol in charge of the implementation of security policy within the Windows Operating System. It links to a Windows OS Security Log. It attempts to verify the log-ins to a server, generate access token, and manage passwords. LSASS is susceptible to the Sasser worm which spreads via a buffer overflow.

    LSP (Layered Service Provider) — A Dynamic Link Library (DLL) that places itself into the TCP/IP protocol stack, where it can intercept and control outbound and inbound internet traffic. This allows processing traffic between the internet and applications accessing it, and also enables web filtering.

    Luhn Algorithm — Also known as a Luhn Formula it is a course of action for checking formulas in order to verify their validity. This is a specification of the ISO. The Luhn algorithm is intended for avoidance of accidental errors. Luhn Algorithm / Formula is also called “modulus 10” and “mod 10”.

    LVM (Logic Volume Manager) — Allows allocating space across mass-storage devices in a way that is more flexible than conventional partitions. Multiple traditional partitions or entire hard drives can be concatenated, striped together or combined into larger virtual volumes that can be resized or moved, sometimes even without interruption of system use. LVM is supported on Linux, IBM AIX, and HP-UX operating systems.

    LZW (Lempel-Ziv-Welch) — Lossless file compression tool created as an alternative to the LZ78 structure. The algorithm generates a thread conversion table used for the texts that need to compress. The usual length of the conversion table is 12-bit to strings. The LZW string table primarily consists of 8-bit character in 256 entries.

    MAC (Media Access Control) — Sub-layer protocol specified by the seven-layer OSI structure as the second layer. It offers channel gateway control and addressing mechanisms that enable several terminals to communicate via networks such as a LAN. It operates between the physical layer and LLC sub-layer as an interface.

    MacScan — A program used by Apple Mac OS X, an anti-spyware tool that can remove loggers, spyware, as well as tracking cookies. It was the primary anti-spyware tool for Mac OS X.

    Magnetic Stripe Card — Modifies the magnetism of the card to be able to store data. It is also known as magstripe. Magstripes are usually found in identity cards, credit cards, as well as in transport tickets.

    Maildir — A well known format used for saving e-mail messages, which does not oblige locking to preserve integrity of the message. Every message employs a separate file using an exclusive file name. Maildir is a type of index that uses subdirectories such as CUR, NEW, and TMP.

    Malware — A term derived from the words “malicious software”. These are software applications that carry other types of malware such as worms, Trojans, adware, and spam. Each malware type is focused on its own malicious task.

    Markup Language — The standard set of marginal notes that illustrates a way to construct, format or lay out software applications. A Markup Language could be a text form that describes the binding or formatting required, or codes employed for word processing and typesetting structure. An example of Markup Language is the HTML.

    Maximum Transmission Unit (MTU) — The principal packet, sized in bytes, that can be propagated over a network. MTU for different networks is set by their administrators. This determines the size of packets that are broadcasted from the operating system to the network.

    MD4 (Message-Digest Algorithm 4) — The cryptographic hash function used for integrity checks, with the digest of 128 bits in length. MD4 is used to calculate Microsoft’s XP, Vista and NT hash passwords. The MD4 alternative is employed to verify ed2k URI system used as file identifier for various networks.

    MD5 (Message-Digest Algorithm 5) — MD5 is influenced by MD4, and is a cryptographic hash function producing a 128-bit value. MD5 is frequently used to verify the reliability of files. Normally 32 figure hexadecimal numbers are used for an expression of MD5.

    MDic — A free dictionary and a multilingual application created for Linux OS. It examines specific text in an application and uses a pop-up to automatically display the result. MDic employs an SQLite database and a converter that can translate .ifo, .bgl, .tei and .dct files. It only requires the Qt4 Library.

    Media Gateway Control Protocol — The architecture used for managing media gateways within IP networks as well as PSTN. The Media Gateway Control Protocol standards and architecture including programming languages are specified in RFC 2805.

    MediaGuard — A restricted entrée system employed by digital television. The Mediaguard system encrypts the signal to block unauthorized access. It uses a set-top container that contains a CAS (Conditional Access System) for each client to decode and receive a signal.

    Meridial Mail — A digital voicemail structure, operating on Nortel’s (Northern Telecom) digital PBX. The mixtures of Meridian Mail and Meridian Power have turned the Nortel into an inspiration of modern telephony.

    Metadata — Data about information (or data about data). Its components are generally used to identify a page description, the document’s author, keywords, as well as other types of information. Metadata is used in HTML documents as meta tags. It is also used by Web browsers to exhibit content or to reload a page.

    Metal Rubber — A wide variety, unofficial name used for plastic conductive polymers. A metal rubber is a self-assembling nanocomposite. It is a complex compound that maintains its properties, which is used for sensors, armors, as well as aerospace materials.

    MicroSD — A format used for removable drives or cards. It is frequently used for mobile phones, as well as portable devices, GPS devices, audio players, expandable flash drives and digital cameras. SD means “Secure Digital”.

    Microsoft Exchange Server — Messaging software developed by Microsoft Corporation as an element of Microsoft products. It is typically used by companies which employ Microsoft Infrastructure. Tasks, calendar, contacts, electronic mail, and other types of data are supported.

    MIDI (Musical Instrument Digital Interface) — A standard technique that allows musical instruments such as keyboards and digital drum machines to synchronize with digital instruments. It acts as a raw file encapsulation protocol used for sysex control. It cannot broadcast media or audio signals. Instead it broadcasts “event messages” including the intensity and pitch control of an instrument or a musical note.

    Mind Uploading — Also known as mind transfer or brain emulation it is the theory of mapping and processing biological brain representation and duplicating its state into a device. It operates using a simulation tool that functions as the original brain. This type of emulation is argued as an endpoint of neuroscience for medical reasons.

    miniSD — A small and removable device created primarily for mobile telephones, MP3 players, and digital cameras. The miniSD integrates a specific adapter enabling compatibility to various devices provided that they have an SD memory slot. The ScanDisk Corp. launched miniSD in 2003.

    Mirar — A toolbar in the Internet Explorer web browser that is supposed to direct searches to related keywords but does it in reverse. It keeps itself in the background and shows commercial advertisements. This is spyware and may also be called Getmirar.

    Mirroring — The process of utilizing redundant disks. If the I/O host controller fails when using mirroring, the files will not be accessible until the I/O host controller is replaced. When using duplexing, the files can be accessed via a redundant controller.

    MLM (Multi-Level Marketing) — Also known as Network Marketing, MLM is a method of selling, by endorsing direct sellers and promoting their products. In MLM not only the products are introduced to consumers but also the company. This can be a method of gaining profit even from the sales of another seller.

    MMS (Multimedia Messaging Service) — Standard protocol for telecommunications used to send messages which include multimedia objects such as rich text, video, images and audio. MMS permits a longer length in messages and uses WAP to exhibit its contents. It is generally used to send photographs as well as ringtones.

    Modem (Modular-Demodulator) — A device used for connecting one or more computers to the internet or local area network and broadcast information via cable or telephone lines. A modem translates digital information to information understandable by the standards of a telephone line (in analog form). The standard interface used for connecting a computer and modem is RS-232.

    Modulation — The structure of an audio or video signal, and the standard protocol for sound production, mixture and transmission. It is the signaling level of a reproduction and recording system. Amplitude Modulation and Frequency Modulation are common categories of modulation.

    Monitor — An electromagnetic radiated machine where a computer user is able to view the computer activities that take place. Monitors may come in flat screens (which makes viewing clearer), in different sizes (makes viewing more observable by the eyes), and in different colors fidelities (for more appealing appearance and more precise color reproduction).

    Morphix — Morphix is a modular OS, instituted on Knoppix. It uses various modules for contrasting operations. The Morphix CD employs a normal system that incorporates a GNOME desktop as an alternative to KDE. Other modules used by Morphix may be generated or other task, for instance, rescue disk, firewalls, or an office suite.

    MotherBoard — Motherboard a circuit CPB (Central Printed Board) which should be found inside the CPU (Central Processing Unit) where all other integral parts of the PC needed by the processor are connected. It is responsible for linking all the units of the computer together. It sets the power and contacts so all other components may work.

    Movica — A GUI (Graphical User Interface) that uses specific applications to edit various video files. The application can operate on PC that can manage a Windows XP, since it uses .net structure. It can divide files into smaller pieces and can link numerous files simultaneously.

    Movielink — A Web-based VOD (Video on Demand) as well as SET (Electronic Sell-Through) that offers TV shows, movies, including video purchase or rentals. It is affiliated with Blockbuster Incorporated. Its contents came from Paramount Pictures, Sony, Universal Studios, and Buena Vista International.

    Mozilla Firefox — known as a Web browser successor from the application suite Mozilla administered by Mozilla Corporation. It uses the layout engine Gecko that employs the recent Web standards. It incorporates a tabbed browsing, additional find, bookmarking, spell checker, as well as search system to download manager.

    MPEG-2 — is the generic principle for videos and related audio data. It illustrates the mixture of audio compression and video compression protocol that allows transmission and saving of data using any available storage media. It is a commonly used format for digital TV signal broadcasting over cable and satellite system. It is also used as a format for various DVD and disks.

    MPEG — MPEG (Moving Picture Experts Group) is an ISO standard used for video and audio transmission and compression. The MPEG compression uses an asymmetric methodology, where the built-in encoder is intricate than its built-in decoder. The encoder uses adaptive algorithm while the decoder executes a fixed task.

    MPLS — MPLS (Multi-protocol Label Switching) it is the standard tools used to speed up the flow of network traffic. The MPLS establishes a particular route for the series of packets given or classified by the label used in every packet. MPLS permits a packet to be propagated within the switching (layer 2) level, and easily manage the QoS of the network.

    MSConfig — MSConfig (Microsoft System Configuration Utility) is a tool that troubleshoots Windows boot-up procedure, manages configuration files. It is incorporated with every MS Operating System. It is available within the Run dialog using ‘msconfig’ command to the system. It can edit config.sys, autoexec.bat, system.ini, and win.ini on Windows 9x platform.

    MSN — MSN (Microsoft Network) is a compilation of Internet Services created by Microsoft. It offers uncomplicated support tools for Windows 95’s multimedia content and the ISP. Microsoft uses the MSN trademark to set off web-based tools.

    MTBF — MTBF known as Mean Time Between Failures, is the standard time employed by an apparatus to operate before flaw occurs. MTBF rankings are calculated in hours and specify robustness of the hard drives as well as printers. A desktop usually have a 500,000 hours of MTBF.

    MTSO — MTSO is an acronym for Mobile Telephone Switching Office, which is the main switch that organizes the whole operation and execution of cellular system. MTSO is a multipart computer system that supervises cellular calls. It is use to track the position of an equipped vehicles.

    Multidimensional Expression — Multidimensional Expression this is a standard for the OLAP systems. IT is a calculation language that uses syntax akin with worksheet method. The syntax it uses is used for the manipulation of the data in OLAP cubes.

    Multimedia — Multimedia is the content and media that uses a mixture of various content forms. Multimedia is frequently played and recorded, accessed or exhibited by data content progression tool. It is also used to describe media devices that can save and understand multimedia files.

    Multitasking — in relation to computers, multitasking is a method where several tasks are performed by only one unit. The process of scheduling the activities of the user is the solution used by the CPU. That way, a user may actively use several programs with one computer.

    MULTOS (Multiple Operating System) — An Operating System that permits various applications to be established and installed securely and separately within the smart card. Several programs can be stored on a single smart card. Every program inside the MULTOS is separated by the smart card to allow the smooth flow of operation.

    MySQL — classified as RDBMS (Relational Database Management System). The application operates as a server that offers a multi-user the access to numerous data banks. The databases of MySQL are saved within an entity known as tables.

    Napster — Napster acknowledged as a file sharing application for music. The technology permits users to distribute and copy MP3 files. The Napster was created by Shawn Fanning. The term Napster was coined after the hair style nickname of Shawn Fanning.

    NAS — NAS (Network Attached Storage) is used as a data storage link to a computer to provide access to various network clients. It is an independent system within a network that supplies a file-based storage configuration. A NAS unit does not include a monitor or keyboard and managed over the established network.

    Neno — Neno is a brand name and an operating system for Neonodes GUI (Graphical User Interface) for Windows CE. The Neno operates on SD removable cards. New version includes bug fixes application as well as the new functions for the software.

    Netbooster — Netbooster is a fake alarm exhibited by applications such as IEDefender as a scare tactics. It is part of the win32 worm that compromises the system. This threat propagates through the internet as a pop-up warning. It does not need an application to embed itself into; the netbooster worm easily spreads itself through free download software.

    NetBSD — NetBSD is a secure, free, and portable open-source OS for various platform including handheld devices. The new released NetBSD 4.0.1 is a security update for the older design. It incorporates attributes such as security fixes, and stability. It comprises of full binary releases used for numerous platforms.

    Netscape Navigator — Netscape Navigator is the specific web browser created by Netscape Comm. Corp. the Netscape Navigator was the foundation of Netscape Communicator, which in turn followed by versions Netscape 6, 7, 8.

    Network Hub — Network Hub also is as repeater hub, is a device used to link numerous optical fibers Ethernet or twisted pair devices to operate as a sole network sector. It works at layer 1 (physical layer0 of the OSI representation. Hubs are also bundled with BNC or AUI connector to permit 10Base5 or 10Base2 network segment.

    Networking — Networking is a method of communication which comprises of two or more computers that are linked to each other by using cables, hubs or wireless communications. This is designed to give every computer an access to other computers. Internet, photos, music and other multimedia files may be shared through a network.

    Network Layer — Network Layer is accountable for the end-to-end delivery of packets including the routing of in-between hosts. Network Layer offers a procedural and functional way of transmitting data using single or various networks and still maintain the error control operation and quality.

    Network Protocol — identifies the rules and principles for the communication of network devices. It uses packet switching to receive and deliver messages in packets. Network protocols incorporate tools for specific device to recognize and link with another. It also includes rules in formatting received and sent messages. It also supports data compression.

    Network Security — Network Security it comprises of standards generated for operating system’s network infrastructure. It begins with the authentication of the users’ password as well as username. It is used to shield the network resources, and top provide reliable and nonstop measurement and monitoring system.

    Network Topology — Network Topology it is the mapping of all the components of a network, specifically the logical and physical connection among the nodes. An example that exhibits both the logical and physical topology is the LAN. A network topology is determined by graphical mapping of the physical and logical configurations of nodes.

    NewsCrawler — An application that saves news article titles as well as links from numerous websites. The output of NewsCrawler is HTML, appropriate for incorporating into a different website. The NewsCrawler’s system is extensible and is created using the PERL language.

    Newsgroup — is a chat regarding specific subject which may comprise articles written within the central site and rebroadcast it via Usenet, a group of network news discussion in the Internet. A newsgroup is administered via hierarchy that specifies the name and subject as well as sub-group of the discussion.

    NextStep — NextStep is the original multitasking and object-oriented operating system that operates on Next Computers such as NeXTcube. The application can run on, 68000 Motorola processor, x86 IBM PC, Mac OS, Sun SPARC, and HP PA_RISC. NextStep includes toolkit to build software on system and supports C programming language.

    NicheBOT — An online tool used for keyboard analysis. It appears like a straightforward search engine that includes a search box within its center. It includes searches that can be executed using Wordtracker, Google, and Overture.

    NIC — NIC (Network Interface Card) are mechanism used to link an operating system to Ethernet. The card presents an interface which uses transceiver internally or externally. The NIC comprises standard firmware control and Ethernet Controller that requires in supporting MAC link protocol.

    NIST — NIST this is National Institute of Standards and Technology. This institution is intended for promotion of the innovation and engineering competitiveness through progress and study of technology, standards, science, economic security and life quality.

    NNTP — NNTP (Network News Transfer Protocol) classified as an internet standard used mainly for posting and reading Usenet writings, including news transferring from various news servers. The standard arrangement for the NNTP was completed on 1986 as RFC 977.

    Node — is a dynamic device connected to the network. It is proficient in receiving, sending, and forwarding data using the communication channel. A node is also known as the point of intersection within the network topology. It can also be a DCE (Data Circuit-terminating Equipment) or DTE (Data terminal Equipment).

    NTFS — NTFS (windows NT File System) is the general file system for various Windows OS. NTFS surpasses the FAT system. It incorporates attributes such as support for metadata and advance data configuration. NTFS used the file system for retrieving and saving data on hard drive.

    NTLDR (NT Loader) — known as Windows NT or Windows XP Operating System boot loader. It runs on the hard drive as well as on portable storage such as USB and CD-Rom. NTLDR may also stack or pack a non-NT Operating System through the use of specific boot sector.

    NTLM (NT LAN Manager) — is the Microsoft protocol authentication used with the SMB structure. The MS-CHAP is identical to the NTLM where it authenticates remote access structures. It is also comparable to LANMAN, the older version of the protocol from Microsoft.

    NTSC — NTSC (National television System Committee) is an analog system responsible for building video protocols worldwide. The NTSC describes the standard for complex video signal using a 60 interlaced refresh-rate for every second. The NTSC protocols are unsuited for computer standards, since it employs RGB signals.

    NUbuntu — NUbuntu (Network Ubuntu) is a re-mastered application from Ubuntu OS that incorporates additional tools used for penetration testing of networks and servers. It uses new and popular tools for its penetration testing. It was intended to be distributed on desktop for Linux user besides servers and network testing. It includes nmap, Wireshark, Ettercap and dsniff.

    Null route — Null route also known as blackhole route, is the network path that does not move or goes nowhere. Null route is generally constructed using a particular route flag, or it can be done using a loopback address. Null routing is accessible for numerous network routers and does not impact the stability and performance of a network.

    NZB — NZB described as an XML-originated file format used for recovering posts within Usenet servers. NZB is efficient within websites that supports NZB files. When downloading, NZB is quicker and bandwidth-proficient. A Usenet Client, that is NZB capable, can interpret the Message-ID within the NZB data.

    OBL (Outbound-link) — A connection between the user’s website to another. OBL can generate values to the user’s website by presenting practical and helpful information without creating or producing the content. It is also a potential starting point for a user. Additionally, it presents a PageRank for a specific website.

    OCR (Optical Character Recognition) — Artificial intelligence of translating text images such as hand written or printed texts. The recognition is usually captured by scanners. The scanned images could be edited by suitable machines.

    OFDMA — OFDMA is the multi-user variant of the OFDM digital modulation. OFDMA obtains the multiple accessed through subsets assigned to users which permits data transmission from users simultaneously. OFDMA is known as Orthogonal Freq-Division Multiple Access.

    OGG — OGG is a standard format managed by Xiph.Org Foundation that can multiplex numerous free source codes for video, audio, metadata and text. It is designed to present efficient way to stream and manage digital multimedia. It also is an audio format used by Ogg Vorbis-encrypted audio.

    Ohioedge — Ohioedge is created as an open source application based upon the protocols of J2EE (Java 2 Enterprise Edition) and operates on top servers. It is a ready to use application. Ohioedge is a hundred percent web-based, so it can be accessed anywhere.

    OLAP — OLAP On Line Analytical Processing is a fundamental method of organizing information with large amount of data. This provides a faster analysis of information being fetched. IT executes multidimensional study, and multifaceted computations and complicated data form.

    OLE (Object Linking and Embedding) — A technical method that allows inserting and connecting of objects developed by Microsoft. This is a technique of opening an object from a program it was not specifically designed for. It is also capable of connecting and allowing changes in a document without direct access.

    OpenBSD — OpenBSD is a project that offers a 4.4BSD multi-OS UNIX-based platform. It highlights correctness, portability and standardization. The OpenBSD maintains a binary imitation of application from Solaris, Linux, SunOS, BSD/OS and HP-UX.

    OpenDML — A file format that defines the AVI compatible format. It addresses to the specific requirements of video files. The OpenDML file format is recognized as the expansion for the VfW (Video for Windows) file format. It is employed to compress the original length for file restriction of 2G.

    Open Firmware — A standard that defines the environment of an Operating System’s firmware structure. It is also known as OpenBoot. Previously known as IEEE, it permits a PC to directly stack OS-independent drivers from specific PCI card. The Open Firmware can be contacted through its language interface.

    OpenGL (Open Graphics Library) — is the standard requirement in describing a cross-platform cross-language API which produces 2 dimensional and 3 dimensional graphics. It is a set of documents that defines the group of operations and behaviors of the program. Through OpenGL, programmers can create hardware acceleration specification.

    OpenOffice — OpenOffice known as OpenOffice.org is a bundled application accessible for numerous operating systems. The OpenOffice is free software and can be downloaded. It maintains the ISO/IEC standard format used for file interchange. OpenOffice was founded from StarOffice developed by Sun Microsystems.

    OpenStep — OpenStep is the object-oriented API used for an operating system that employs the recent OS as the core. The OpenStep is an execution of the OpenStep API by Nest and the NextStep by UNIX Mach-based. The OpenStep API permits the Next OS to run on Solaris OS.

    Opentaps — Opentaps is a CRM and ERP (Enterprise Resource Planning) employed for businesses. It includes capabilities such as Point-of-Sale, eCommerce, Warehouse, and general ledger. It also includes business tools such as Microsoft Outlook and Calendar. It can be executed via 32-bit Windows (2000/XP/2003) or POSIX.

    OpenVMS (Open Virtual Memory System) — A name of a system server that operates on VAX v3 as well as on Alpha v4. It is an OS that is a virtual memory-based multiprocessor manufactured for batch processing, time sharing, transaction, and real-time processing.

    Operating System — Operating system- is the borderline between the user and the hardware; it manages all the activities requested by the user against all the resources available on the computer. It is accountable of all the programs ran by the user. The OS also handles the activities of the hardware.

    Optical Fiber Cable — Optical Fiber Cable is a cable that comprises a single or more optical fibers. Each optical fiber is coated individually with plastic layers suitable for the environment where it will be installed. The layers add strength to the cable but do not supply additional optical properties.

    Oracle — Oracle or Oracle Database, is the RDBMS (Relational Database Management System). It is classified by SID consists of an instance of the program including the data storage. The Oracle instance contains a compilation of operating system files and memory-configurations which cooperate with the storage.

    OSI Model — OSI Model (Open System Interconnection Reference Model) is an intricate layer of description and network protocol structure. It was created as an element of OSI. It partitions the network configuration into particular layers, which are the Presentation, Application, Network, Transport, Session, Physical Layer and Data link. It is also known as the seven layer of OSI.

    OSL — OSL (Open Software License) identified as open-source software license system, certified by OSI. The OSL was created as identical to the LGPL. It is also attuned with GPL. It was declared that OSL was proposed to be tougher than GPL.

    OSS — OSS (Open Source software) is described as computer application to which the source code and other privileges are kept for copyright holders. The OSS permits the client to alter, use, and progress, and reorganize the software. The OSS is a well known open source structure. The term was coined from the free software marketing campaign.

    Outlook Express — Outlook Express is an electronic mail and news application embedded with selected versions of the Internet Explorer. This program is used for sending and retrieving mails as well as updating a user about certain news and reports. This program requires Internet access so as to update and be able to send and receive electronic mails.

    Override — An agreement that permits the user to manage a system. An override represents the implementation of the inherited members within a base class. It is used to transform a protocol or a script to provide a new execution.

    Packet Analyzer — Packet Analyzer is also known as sniffer or network analyzer, is a computer application or a hardware which is used to interrupt as well as log traffics in a network. The packet analyzer captures every packet and sooner or later analyzes and decodes the file content. It employs RFC as well as other specification.

    Packet — is the component of data being routed on the Internet between the source and the destination. When a piece of data is broadcasted on the Web, a layer of TCP splits the data into a suitable size for course-plotting. Each packet is propagated separately including the address. When each packet arrived, the TCP layer will reconstruct the data for the user.

    Packet Switching — A protocol in network communication that manages and groups every broadcasted data within an appropriate block size known as packet. It uses a shared network to transmit packets, reroute each packet separately, and assign transmission resources. Packet switching is used to maximize the allotted link capacity to increase toughness of communication.

    PageRank — A form of numeric value that characterizes the importance of a page within the Web. Various search engines utilize it to cast votes on certain page. PageRank verifies how significant a page is depending on its rank. It determines the class of the website in search results.

    Password Cracking — Password Cracking it is a process of retrieving a forgotten or unknown password from its storage data. It is commonly achieved by trying several possible passwords. The main purpose of this is to give access to a user’s account with forgotten passwords, although this also provides a greater possibility from being hacked.

    Patch Panel — A panel fixed in a certain area. It consists of numerous connections of cables that allow access to equipments. Typically, a patch panel is assigned to a specific wiring, like telephones. This includes direct wiring which could provide easier repair for better services.

    PBX — PBX the long form for this is Private Branch Exchange. This is telephone network which are typically used in enterprises. Normally this is composed of only three to four numbers, it gives the caller the advantage of not forgetting the PBX easily. This is also cheaper than providing an independent line for every employee.

    PCI — PCI (Peripheral Component Interconnect) is the standard specification for linking hardware to CPU. It is the electrical attributes as well as the signal protocol used for the devices to interrelate over the central bus. The Wi-Fi and Ethernet network adapters use PCI.

    PCMCIA — PCMCIA is an association that promotes and defines the ExpressCard and PC card standard. The name of the company is known for the development of memory cards. PCMCIA cards are used for modem, wireless connections, as well as notebook PC.

    PDA (Personal Digital Assistant) — A portable and lightweight computer. It also is the palmtop computer. It incorporates audio and color screen capabilities which can be used as a Web browser, mobile phone, as well as media players. Numerous PDAs incorporate a touch screen structure.

    PDCP — PDCP (Packet Data Convergence Protocol) is the layer of Radio Traffic Stack which operates decompression and compression of IP header, and maintenance of Radio Bearers sequence numbers. The PDCP will deliver IP packets without the need to compress the packet; else the upper layer will compress the packet. The PDCP header comprises of two categories: PDU TYPE and PID.

    PDP (Plasma Display Panel) — known as the flat panel screen used for TV screens (940 mm) where a gas mixture is inserted between the panels of glass. The electrically charged gas will be turned into plasma to be able to produce light.

    PEAP — PEAP (Protected Extensible authentication) is the encryption protocol used to broadcast authentication information over wireless or wired network. It was created by Microsoft, RCA Security, and Cisco. PEAP employs a server-side certification to verify the server. The SLL/TLS tunnel will be generated by the PEAP between the server and client.

    Peer-to-peer — A network that uses a specific set of communication between a host and a client respectively. P2P network is frequently used to link nodes through informal connection. A pure peer-to-peer network contains identical peer nodes which concurrently operate as a server and as a client to both nodes of a network.

    Perl — Perl is a general-purpose, advanced programming language. Perl was developed primarily as UNIX language. Perl make use of other programming language attributes such as SH (Shell Scripting), C, SED and AWK. The program offers a text process capability without the limits of arbitrary UNIX tools.

    PGP (Pretty Good Privacy) — A public key which may be used for decrypting and encrypting electronically communicated texts. This is to increase the security of the information being conveyed. Included with it is the system that binds the public key and the ID.

    Phishing — Phishing – is an engineering method of retrieving important data from another computer by embedding applications on trusted software. The data gathered are used for the benefit of the retriever. Phising scam could also take place upon filling up on fraudulent websites. The data gathered include password, game accounts and credit card particulars.

    PHLAK — PHLAK is a Linux Live CD distribution founded on Morphix. It centers on presenting security tool for a network. It incorporate attributes such as nessus, snort, nmap, Wireshark. PHLAK stands for Professional Hackers Linux Assault Kit.

    PHProxy — operates as a shield screener between the Internet and the user where only the IP address of the server is registered. The PHProxy server downloads the information within its memory and displays it before the user.

    PIN — PIN (Personal Identification Number) it is a numeric code used between the systems to validate the users’ legality. The user presents a vital code into the system, upon obtaining the code; the system will compare this information to be able for the user to gain entrée to the system.

    PKI (Public Key Infrastructure) — A service that manages the certification of public keys used for cryptography. This is an assessment that provides an appropriate and unique key for every certified authority (CA). Each user has a unique CA that comes with a unique key.

    PLD — PLD (Programmable Logic Device) is an electronic element that is used to assemble reconfigurable circuit in digital form. The manufacturer determines the used of PLD upon creation. The Programmable Logic Device must me reconfigured or programmed before use.

    Plenum Cable — Plenum Cable is the cable arrange systematically within buildings. The Plenum is the space that is used to manage air circulation for air and heating conditioning system, via pathways or airflow. The Plenum is generally a structure that provides sealed spaces that not permit air to escape on particular setting.

    Plug-in — comprises computer program which cooperates with an application such as email client or Web browser to present a particular task. Plug-ins may enable a remote server to generate other application’s capabilities. It can also support characteristics or attributes to split up applications from a source code due to incompatibility.

    PNG — PNG (Portable Network Graphics) it is a bitmap image format that uses a lossless compression for data. It was generated to improve the GIF format. It can support as high as 24-bit RGB( red, green , blue) colors.

    PocketDish — A pocket size storage gadget with a huge capacity of memory for storage. Downloading TV shows or movies from the Network Dish is just one feature of PocketDish. It is also able to connect to other electronic devices like television. Pictures, movies and, other types of data could be stored in the PocketDish.

    POP3 — POP3 (Post Office Protocol) a standard protocol employed for accepting e-mail. The protocol is a server/client set of standards in which the received e-mails will be apprehended by the Internet server. It is created to support e-mail services such as Outlook Express and Eudora. POP3 deletes e-mails immediately from the server after downloading.

    POP (Post Office Protocol) — A server used for temporary storage of incoming electronic mails. With POP, the recipient may retrieve mails by connecting to ISP POP server while it connects to the electronic mails interface.

    PopUp — browsers that suddenly open and appear on the user screen even without use consent. Most pop-ups are focused on advertising. These advertisements also have the ability to disable menu bars and title bars.

    Port Zoning — Port Zoning is the utilization of physical ports to be able to describe the security zones. The entry point of a user to a data is established by the physical port the system is connected. Zone data should be regularly updated with port zoning, and does not permit a zone to overlap.

    POS (Point of Sale) — A technology that allows a retailer to monitor their products, inventory, prices, and other details of the product faster. This is usually achieved through infrared technology and bar codes. This is used by customers because it allows them to get better service.

    Power Rating — is the guidelines created by the manufacturer to remind the user of the maximum allowable power for the system or device. The limit is frequently set lower than the actual level to avoid total damage of device. The power rating may also be the dissipation of electric power or to transform it to mechanical energy.

    PPC (Pay per Click) — An online method of advertising employed on Ad networks, search engines, and websites. PPC is described as an agreement that advertisers have in a small ad space inside the website. This is only paid when a user clicks the ad. PPC engines are characterized in service, keyword, and products engine.

    PP — PP (Polypropylene) known as a polymer thermoplastic used for textiles, packaging, plastic parts, stationery, and lab equipments, as well as polymer banknotes. This type of polymer is also used as automotive module, loudspeakers and containers. PP is bases, solvent and acid resistant.

    PRIMOS — PRIMOS it is an OS used for minicomputer structure. The PRIMOS was primarily known as DOS and DOSVM. It incorporates characteristic that is written in advance language such as PL/P and PL/1. It also incorporates a real-time customizable OS known as RTOS.

    Protocol — is the standardized process used to transfer information on various devices as well as technique for broadcasting data. It is also used to describe how something has to be done. It is a general term used to set standardization on a specific system.

    Proxy — A record of open HTTPS/ SOCKS/ HTTP proxy servers in a single website. A proxy permits a user to generate a connection to a system on a network. Proxy records contain the IP addresses of Operating System with an open proxy server separated by proxy protocols.

    PSGuard — PSGuard is a rootkit technology that shelters the registry keys from unauthorized access. It uses the difference between the Native API and Win32 API. In Native API, data are counted in 16-bit string Unicode, while Win32 API is interpreted as 8-bit ANSI and wide 16-bit strings.

    PSI — is a free messaging program developed primarily for the Jabber IM. The PSI program is compatible with Linux, Mac OS, and Windows Operating System. It features an easy-to-use structure of file transfers and manageable set of icons.

    PSTN — PSTN (Public Switched Telephone Network) it is a compilation of interlinked telephone networks, government owned or commercial. It is also known as POTS (plain Old Telephone Service). PSTN provides the long-distance structure for the Internet since ISP providers pay long-distance rate to kink with their circuits.

    PST — PST (Personal Storage Table) is a file format used to store messages, events, including files from Microsoft Exchange, Outlook and Windows Messaging. The PST file format is supported as a proprietary structure which cannot be accessed by a third-party program such as Mozilla Thunderbird and Eudora. The libpst service can convert PST files.

    PSX — PSX is a digital video recorder from Sony with S-video, RF and composite inputs. It was created as general audio-visual tool that supports PS and PS2 game console. It is the primary console that uses the XrossMediaBar, and can tune to analog CATV and VHF.

    Pump and dump — A way of selling cheap products with higher prices by using exaggerated statements to describe the products being sold. This method of selling is commonly observed in Internet selling.

    PXE — PXE also known as Pre-Boot Execution Environment is an element of Intel’s WfM standard specification. It permits an operating system to start from its server via network before the boot operation within the hard drive. It links its NIC onto the LAN jumper to stay connected to the network.

    QoS — QoS (Quality of Service) is the measurement and improvement of error rates, transmission rates as well as characteristics of the Internet of Network. QoS is practically employed for the uninterrupted propagation of multimedia and high-bandwidth transmission of information. In computer networking, the QoS is the direct reservation mechanism of network traffic.

    Quad-Band — Quad-band literally represents a four band channel. A Quad band is practical to facilitate roaming service between countries using different frequencies. This is to permit a better coverage of communication within a country.

    QVGA — QVGA (Quarter Video Graphics Array) is the customary display for cameras and monitors that used 240-pixel high and 320-pixel wide. QVGA is usually initiated for high-end phones as well as Series 80 handsets. It is also used for digital camera at 0.08-megapixels.

    Radar Jamming — Radar Jamming is the deliberate emanation of radio frequency to be able to interfere with the execution and operation of radars. It saturates its receiver using false information and noise. Radar Jamming includes two category; Electronic Jamming and Mechanical Jamming. Electronic jamming radiates the intrusive signal in the direction of the radar being jammed; Mechanical jamming reflects the energy of the radar.

    Radar — Radar is a mechanism that uses electromagnetic to identify the altitude, range, speed, or direction of fixed and moving objects. The term RADAR is the acronym for radio ranging and detection. It was primarily known as RDF (Radio Direction Finder). It includes a transmitter that releases radio waves or microwave.

    RADIUS — RADIUS is the Remote Authentication Dial in User Service. It offers integrated authorization, access and management used to link computers to the network service. It is described as the standard employed for managing and maintaining validation and authentication of user. RADIUS has a new variant known as RRAS.

    RAID — RAID is the Redundand Array of Independent Disks. It is a process of saving similar files onto another location within a multiple hard drive. The I/O function when inserting files within a multiple drive could overlap its operation and improve its performance. It uses the method of disk scripting.

    RAN — RAN (Radio Access Network) is a chunk of mobile communication system. It executes the access technology. The RAN executes between the core network and mobile phones. RAN is characteristically used for UMTS, GSM and other standards. The RAN is comparable to the air interface of TIA standards IS-95 and IS-146.

    RAR files — RAR files these are files (one or more) which have been collected as one in order to compress. A certain computer file which has been converted / compressed into RAR file may occupy lesser system space than an uncompressed file therefore RAR files also tolerate quicker transfer via instant message or other transmitting methods.

    RC4 — RC4 this is used to protect the traffic of the internet. It has significant ease of use and speed. This software is intended to stream cipher. It is used for encryption and decryption of text. ARCFOUR and ARF4 are other terms for RC4.

    Recovery Console — An advanced analytic characteristic of the command line console accessible in various Windows platforms. It is used to resolve numerous platform setbacks. Recovery Console is useful in replacing and repairing OS files. It can be contacted via boot menu or from its installation CD.

    Referrer Spam — A search engine spamming or spamdexing. The method is used to generate multiple Web requests via bogus URL indicating to the website that the remote server wants to advertise. When a website’s access log is accessible online, the information will be linked to the spammer.

    Refresh Rate — Refresh Rate it is the quantity of data that is exhibited by the display hardware per second. Refresh rate is different from frame rate, since it incorporates the recurring representation of the same frame. The refresh rate is also known as Vertical Refresh Rate.

    ReiserFS — ReiserFS is a journaling file structure for general purpose. Implemented and created Hans Reiser. Its variants are created as a standard kernel for Linux. ReiserFS is the standard file structure for Novell’s Linux Enterprise. Today the ReiserFS was considered attribute-complete and stable, except for bug fixes and updates.

    Rendering — is the method of collecting information by creating a representation of a model through computer application. It uses a three dimensional standard data structure or a language to represent the model. It is also used to illustrate method of calculating the effects in video editing up to its final output.

    Resistance (Electrical Resistance) — known as the measurement of steady passage of current in an object. It was discovered by Georg Ohm. It uses the symbol of ohm as its standard unit. The reciprocal quantity of resistance is conductance.

    Resistor — An electrical element with two nodes or terminals created to produce voltage drop between its nodes. It is used as a component of electrical circuit. Resistors may be created via compound of elements and films, including alloys, chrome, or nickel wire.

    Resolution — is the pixel count of an image. It expresses the details of film images and digital images. It is to enumerate the proximity of lines. The higher the resolution means the higher detail of an image.

    RFID — RFID stands for Radio Frequency Identification which is typically the application of radio frequency identification tag into a person or an animal for the purpose of tracking or identification with the use of radio waves. This consists of an antenna and an integrated circuit. Nowadays the RFID is used even for inventory management.

    RGB — RGB is the primary color model used to generate various array of colors. RGB is the Red, Green as well as Blue colors. Its sole purpose is for representation, sensing, and the display of images in computers and television. RGB is described as device-independent color.

    Robonaut — Robonaut is the humanoid robot that is proposed to operate as an equivalent to the EVA astronaut. It incorporates special robotic tools and traditional on-orbit tools. Robonaut was created at NASA’s Robot System Tech.

    Robotic Surgery — Robotic Surgery is a procedure that uses a robot to perform a surgery. It advances the aided remote surgery, unmanned surgery and least invasive surgery. The main advantages of this type of surgery include; less pain, precision, smaller cuts, minimal blood loss and miniaturization.

    ROLM — ROLM acknowledged as a technological Corporation established by Silicon Valley. The company produces military specification system that used Data General Application, producing voice equipments. It produces the telephone system such as ROLM Redwood and ROLM CBX (for small and large scale respectively).

    ROM — ROM (Read-Only Memory) is a type of storage media used for various electronic devices and computers. It primary used is to allocate firmware; since ROM is cannot be easily modified, and required regular updates. The ROM come form the solid state read-only memory known as Mask ROM.

    Root — Also called the administrator account. Root is the user with the permission on every mode of a multi-user or single OS. The root in PC file structure is recognized as the top-most or the first directory within the chain of command.

    ROT13 — ROT13 this is a proxy for cipher, it is used for forums online. This has likeness with cryptography only it is very less in security. The ROT13 temporarily locks the solutions for puzzles and other online activities. The algorithm used for encryption and decryption of ROT13 is the same. It means ‘rotate for 13 places’.

    Router — A device that sends and receives data packets in networks. Routers are commonly located in a place where two or more WAN or LAN and their ISPs connect. Networking is typically used for file sharing and Internet purposes. Protocols are used for communication within networks and routers.

    RPTV — RPTV (Rear Projection Television) is a large television screen technology that employs a rear projection tools. It uses three projection structures, the CRT rear projection, LCD and LCoS, producing of up to 1080p resolution. The video projector uses the same rear technology.

    RSA — RSA the first algorithm for symmetric-keys of cryptography that is capable of signing and encryption. The RSA is completed with three steps the generation of the keys, its encryption and lastly its decryption. Normally this is used for security of electronic protocol implementation.

    RSN — RSN (Robust Security Network) is the component encryption algorithm and 802.11i authentication used to link wireless clients and WAP. The RSN is responsible for the implementation of new algorithms when new threats are exposed.

    RSOD (Red Screen of Death / Doom) — is the bright red boxes that appear after a serious error has occurred. This could be encountered in Vista and early versions of Windows 98. BSOD is also a code named Memphis. It is also known in the beta version of Lotus as well as the new Microsoft OS version Vista.

    RSS (Really Simple Syndication) — A group of Web-feed structure used to distribute up-to-date blog entries, audio, news headlines, and videos in standard structure. The RSS file format is specified under XML, a specification used in creating data format. RSS is also recognized as channel, feed, or Web feed.

    RTF — RTF (Rich Text Format) recognized as a document file structure created for cross-operating system file transaction by Microsoft. Various word processors can access RTF files. Microsoft word incorporates an RTF writer and reader that can convert RTF files into DOC file format.

    RTOLAP — RTOLAP (Real Time OLAP) is a protocol that analyzes fly values when required. It saves every bit of information in RAM. The calculations are executed in a “right-away” manner which reduces the setback linked with “information outburst” since it only saves information under the RAM size standard.

    Rtvscan.exe — Rtvscan.exe it was acknowledged as a process responsible in the implementation of virus-scanning in real-time to avoid malicious files. The application is vital for the security and stability of the system and is not advisable to remove.

    Runtime — Runtime it illustrate the process of specific computer application, the period of its execution, from start to finish. It is also known as a Virtual Machine that can administer or organize an application of certain programming language during its operation. Runtime is also used as a library of general codec for specific compiler.

    SaaS — SaaS Software as a Service is an application operation where a provider would issue a license to a client for the use of software or service, and would end the program after a contract the contract has expired. This allows a user to share the EULA in firms.

    Safe Mode — Safe mode is a method that allows the operating system to troubleshoot. This is typically used by electronic devices like computers and mobile phones. This does not work for functionality but for the maintenance of the system.

    SAML — SAML (Security Assertion Markup Language) it is an XML standard protocol that permits a client to log on separate web pages. The SAML is created mainly for business transactions. The message exchanged by SAML is plotted using SOAP (Simple Object Access Protocol). It operates with HTTP, SMTP, FTP as well as ebXML, OASIS and BizTalk.

    SAN — SAN Stands for Storage Area Network, it is a network which links storage devices of several kinds, it is also provided with special high speed. This is normally used in wide networks and enterprises.

    SATA — SATA (Serial Advanced Technology Attachment) is a method of attaching computer systems and hard disks by using SATA cables for the purpose of recognizing each one. The technology it uses to communicate is through serial signaling.

    SCART — SCART classified as a 21-pin French standard connector used for AV equipments. It is also acknowledged as Peritel 21-pin EuroSCART. The system was created to abridge audio-visual connection. SCART collects the analog signal into a single connector. The signals include RGB and composite video, digital signaling and stereo output.

    SCP — SCP this is Secure Copy. It is a method of sending files between networks and remote communication but having the said files secured with the so called SSH (Security Shell) protocol. This enables a user to transfer records without having information leakage. It usually asks for secret codes or passwords.

    Scraper Site — is literally a website that gathers all contents of other websites and re-circulates it without authorization. A scraper site generally uses automated application to harvest information. The process is also called “scraping”. A scraper site violates copyright law.

    ScreenShot — ScreenShot also known as screen dump or screen capture is an image gathered by the system as a proof or record items exhibited within the screen. ScreenShot can be used to exhibit an application or for archive. A camera or specific software can be used to take screenshot.

    Script Error — the errors displayed by the browser to let the user know that it is experiencing problems in running the clients’ website. The error is usually unsolved by the browser for script errors are usually caused by the Web developer.

    SCSI — SCSI (Small Computer System Interface) is the data transfer and physical connection standard protocol between peripherals and computers. SCSI describes the electrical, command as well as optical interfaces. It is generally used for tape drives and hard drives.

    SDK — SDK (Software Development Kit) is a compilation of advance tools that permits the creation of programs for a particular software, application framework, operating system, hardware, or game console. An SDK could be a simple programming interface or a complex hardware for communication system.

    SDK (Software Development Kit) — is a collection of tools for software development that allows a webmaster to generate applications for a particular software bundle, computer system, hardware, framework, or OS. SDK is an interface to a specific programming script to be able to communicate with embedded structure. SDK regularly incorporates sample code and notes to assist and simplify a point from its reference.

    SDL (Simple DirectMedia Layer) — A library for cross-platform multimedia implemented to present a low profile link with mouse, audio, keyboard, 2-D, and 3-D. It is programmed in C, and works with C++. It binds other programming languages such as C#, Eiffel, Erlang, Java, Lua, Tcl, and Ruby.

    Search Engine — is the program structure that searches for information or documents through the keywords used by the user. It then comes back with a record of information linked with the typed keyword. It is a general category of program used to classify systems that enable users to access information online.

    SearchStatus — SearchStatus is a toolbar for Mozilla and Firefox. It is created to focus the need for search engine agents. The SearchStatus offers extensive information regarding the web site, which is discretely displayed at the toolbar. SearchStatus can access PageRank, Category, and incoming links.

    Secure Password Authentication — Secure Password Authentication is the protocol used to verify with SMTP server. The protocol is a characteristic of Microsoft but founded on NTLM scheme. The SPA is an effort to document the unrecorded NTLM verification technique. The authentication is not an HTTP scheme.

    Semiconductor — is a device that incorporates conductivity between the insulator and conductor. A material semiconductor may vary according to the applied electrical field. The semiconductor components are the basis of modern electronics, such as computers, radios, and other electronic devices.

    SEO (Search Engine Optimization) — the method of progressing the quality and volume of website traffic from a specific search engine through natural search outcome. To optimize a website, SEO principally involves altering its HTML and contents to boost relevance of certain keywords.

    Serialization — the protocol of translating an entity into a progression of bits to transmit the entity through a network or to save it in a storage device. It is also identified as the restructuring of random file, especially C++, to a series of bytes.

    SERP (Search Engine Results Page) — A page that displays the results of the user’s search. Usually, a search engine would display several results related to keywords entered. Images, videos, and articles may be included in the search results, as long as there is relevance.

    Servlet — is the Objects which automatically route a request as well as create responses in Java language application. The Java Servlet permits a software engineer to insert dynamic contents within a server through the use of Java system. HTML is generally the created content but it also includes XML content. The Java Servlet is equivalent to ASP.NET, CGI, and PHP.

    SFTP — SFTP this stands for Secure File Transfer Protocol. This is an application which uses Secure Shell in relocating files. It avoids the plain transmission of data, for it does not only secure the information but also encrypts the commands. It is not possible to connect the FTP with SFTP for they differ in protocols.

    SHA — SHA stands for Secure Hash Algorithm. This Algorithm has several parts; one that identifies the security flaws like weaknesses and other mathematical facts, another one which improves the weaknesses which might have been found by the first part and the other which is under development.

    Shell — Shell is software that offers access or interface into the kernel services. The term is also used to describe a program that is created around a specific module, such as ‘shells’ for the HTML rendering module. OS shells are recognized in categories such as graphical and command-line.

    Shoulder Surfing — Shoulder Surfing is a method that involves a direct examination, for instance, staring at someone to gain information. The method could also be accomplished via vision-enhancing telescope to gain information. It is easier to Shoulder Surf on a crowded place, since it is effortless to observe people.

    Shrook — is the RSS intelligent feed reader which can organize and exhibit news in a customizable or smart method. The individual feed can be managed via custom file folder inside the Shrook. This type of feed reader harmonizes channels and read items within copies.

    Skype — software with free call features. It allows its users to contact people on landlines, mobile, or other Skype users for free. It functions with the Internet and it can also send pictures, videos, and other files instantly.

    Smart Card — A type of gizmo that incorporates an IC (Integrated Circuit) embedded with a microcontroller and internal memory. Smart Card corresponds to (ISO/IEC 14443 and ISO/IEC 7816) international standard. With the embedded internal memory, the smart card will have the ability to carry an on-card operation, store huge amount of files, and intelligently communicate with the smart card reader.

    S/MIME (Secure/ Multipurpose Internet Ma — is the standardized structure used for marking emails described in MIME and the encryption of public keys. S/MIME offers message reliability, authentication, as well as security and privacy. S/MIME is an IETF standard produced by RSA Data Security Incorporated.

    SmitFraud — SmitFraud is a spyware that establish its files within an operating system without authorization. The set up is done when the user installs a bogus codec, and also embedded in various programs. It contaminates DLL files which will lead to a BSoD (Blue Screen of Death).

    SmitRem — SmitRem is an independent application that is created to remove particular adware/spyware. It does not act as antivirus program, but searches for precise threat within an application. SmitRem is a compilation of protocols utilities, special tools, and batch files.

    SMS — SMS (Short Message Service) is a standardized service for GSM mobile system, employing standard protocols that permit the exchange of text messages. SMS technology aids the development of text messaging. SMS was mainly designed as ingredient of GSM series of mobile telephone standards as a way to broadcast messages of at least 160 characters.

    SMSS — SMSS (Session Manager Subsystem) also referred to as smss.exe is an executable file for Windows NT OS accountable initiating the system session. When the system starts, the SMSS process will be executed, which is initiated by the system thread. The smss.exe is located within system32.

    SMTP (Simple Mail Transfer Protocol) — used to propagate emails with servers. It is mainly used to broadcast messages on mail clients into mail servers. SMTP is directed to specify the IMAP or POP server as well as the SMTP server when managing the email application.

    SnakeBot — Snakebot known as a hyper-redundant biomorphic robot that is looks like a Snake. The robot was created by attaching each section together to form a series of self-governed links, which makes the Snakebot resistant to malfunction.

    SOAP — SOAP (Simple Object Access Protocol) is the specification used to exchange prearranged information within the network. It uses XML (Extensible Markup Language) as its standard format, and relies on HTTP and RPC. The SOAP permits the user to activate programs as well as individual procedure or object within the application.

    Social Engineering — Social Engineering it is a term used to illustrate the intrusion method that relies on the human interaction to gather necessary information. A Social Engineering relies on the goodwill of others to penetrate, for instance, a network or a server.

    Soft Perfect — SoftPerfect Network Protocol Analyzer is a higher certified means intended for managing internet connections and local networks. These permits a user to modify the network packets for its results are presented in an plain form. This has the capacity to catch data which pass through Ethernet cards.

    Softpub — Softpub.dll it comprises of codec used for Microsoft Windows to be able to access connection that involves authentication. Softpub.dll is a regular system file. Removing the Softpub library could impact the system performance.

    Software Bugs — Software Bugs these are errors in an application usually caused by miscalculation in the creation of a certain program. These mistakes in the program referred to as bugs may cause random failures when using the program. Typically a bug would not respond correctly to the request of the user, it could fail certain action.

    Software Framework — is the reusable structure of system software or subsystem. It may incorporate code, programming language, support application, libraries, or software needed to construct and put the elements of a project together. It is also known as construction of codes or programming that provides generic function.

    Soft Zoning — Soft Zoning is a protocol employed by fibre channel that uses filtering to avoid ports from unauthorized access. In soft zoning, the ports can still be accessed when a user from a different zone guesses the right address for the fibre channel.

    Solaris — Solaris is known as UNIX-based OS created in 1992 by Sun Microsystem. It is acknowledged because it uses SPARC Systems, and its bundled attribute ZFS and DTrace. It supports an x86-based and SPARC platforms. Solaris codes are available within Opensolaris project.

    SONET — SONET (Synchronous Optical Networking) is a two protocols for multiplexing created to transmit digital streams of bit via light-emitting diodes or optical fiber. The SONET was created as a replacement to the PHD (Plesiochronous Digital Hierarchy) structure. It permits different circuit to transmit simultaneously from the source using a particular framing protocol.

    Sound Quality — the audio output quality from electronic or audio devices. It is described as the accuracy of the sound waves emitted from a device. For digital playback or digital recording, the accuracy depends on the sound range and the rate of sound that is sampled.

    Source Code — A compilation of declarations or standards written in an easy to understand programming language. It is a set of data required to translate a readable script to a computer executable structure. The source code allocates a programmer to link with an Operating System via specific order.

    Spam Bully — Spam Bully is an anti-spam application created by Axaware LLC. It employs the Bayesian filtering module to part legitimate emails from Spam mails. Spam Bully uses Block and Allow lists to verify if an email will be directed to the inbox. It also incorporates the capability to deliver reports to the FTC.

    Spam — is Internet flooding. A spam is usually a commercial advertisement, scheme, product, or service. Spam can be categorized into two: Usenet spam or single message for newsgroups and email spam for addresses gathered within the email address book.

    Spell Checker — is the program that can flag statements within a file or document. A spell checker executes on individual words, evaluating each word along with the dictionary. A spell checker can be a standalone application proficient in executing on a chunk of text.

    Spider — Also identified as crawler or a robot. It is an application that pursues URL’s, steal contents and data from the Web page, and save them inside the search engine index. It is used to gather information regarding the user’s Web routine. Google executes and propagates its own spiders to generate indexing.

    SPKI — SPKI (Simple Public Key Infrastructure) is the standard used to prevail over the scalability and complicated setbacks of the X.509 standard. It uses the RFC 2693 and RFC 2692. SPKI defines the authorization certificate file structure. The SPKI was joined with SDSI.

    Spyware — A software application embedded with programs that could log keystrokes, visited URLs, and other vital information for users. The pieces of data collected by the spyware are then used by hackers for attacks or other purposes. Spyware applications are possibly downloaded through the Internet.

    SSH (Secure Shell) — is the network standard the permits information to be swapped via a secure channel of networked devices. It is used mainly on UNIX or Linux-based systems in order to gain entry to shell accounts. SSH was created as a proxy to the TELNET structure as well as other remote shells.

    SSL (Secure Socket Layer) — A tool that shelters the website from various threats. SSL permits encryption of vital information especially online business. It comprises of authenticated and unique data regarding the owner. It is responsible for the verification of certificates and identity issued.

    Steganography — the method of writing messages in a way that is not understandable by other suspects, except the sender and the recipient. The purpose of steganography is to hide the information being transmitted. Electronic communications also embrace digital steganography.

    Surround Sound — A technique used to enhance the quality of sound from audio source using a multi-channel audio to attain the 3D quality of sound. Surround Sound is used in home theater, cinema, video consoles, as well as in computers. It uses the center, left, right, rear surround, and the sub-woofer.

    Svchost — A process of systems that shows and maintains the processes that are being executed from the library (DLL). This creates lists of services and programs needed for the proper functioning of the system. This is automatically started upon Windows startup.

    SWF (Shockwave Flash) — A file structure used for vector graphics as well as multimedia. SWF files comprise of applets or animation that vary on function and interactivity. It can be produced from an 8 level of SwishMax2 and inside Adobe Flex Builders and Flash including MXMLC.

    Swing — A minute toolkit for Java. It was built to supply a complicated type of GUI elements. It offers a local and natural feel of various platforms. It tracks a one-threaded type-scripting form that permits a link between particular framework interfaces. Swing is also a module-based structure.

    System Preferences — is the program that modifies the user’s preferences on Mac OS X. It was initiated within the Mac OS X version 10 to substitute the control panel in the beta-Mac OS X version. It can also be installed via third party server.

    System tray — A program running on a specific X screen that exhibits icons of the running application. It is also known as X client. It possesses a manager on a certain monitor and presents a container window. It is frequently used for temporary icons that point out to a particular state.

    Tabjacking — A threat which may be coded upon the selection of new tabs in browsers today. A multi-tabbed window is advantageous to users. However, by using this feature, threats may also be more often encountered. Malware programs may be displayed in hijacked tabs.

    Tag — A word allocated to a component of data such as file, digital image, and bookmark. This is a type of metadata that assists users in describing an item and permits them to access the tag again via searching or browsing.

    Taskbar — the primary entry point of an application linked to the desktop. Taskbar is used to access a window and a secondary window, and to swiftly control these windows. The taskbar controls are recognized as taskbar buttons.

    TCP/IP (Transmission Control Protocol/ I — is a compilation of communication protocol used to link the host computer into the Internet. It uses a number of protocols, such as TCP and IP. It is created within the standard of UNIX OS, and became the standard protocol for data transmission.

    Thermistor — A class of resistor that has a proportional resistance with its temperature. The materials used for thermistor are polymer and ceramic. Thermistors are commonly used as limiters, over current protector and temperature sensor.

    Thread — is a computer program fork that can support one, two or more tasks running simultaneously. A thread is usually contained within a process. Numerous threads may exist inside a very similar application and shared memory resources. Multithreading occurs in a processor using a split-time multiplexing, a switching bet threads.

    Tolerance (engineering) — is the measurement or property of a material, the acceptable limit for physical dimension, humidity, temp, as well as created objects. The physical distance is also known as tolerance (engineering). A tolerance is specified to permit reasonable means for imperfection without affecting the performance.

    Trillian — A multi-protocol IM program used for Windows Operating System. It was produced by Cerulean Studios. Trillian can link to various IM applications.

    Trojan Horse — An application that appears to be of good function but actually allows illegal servers to control another property. This type of application is capable of saving files with the power to monitor one’s computer activities, identifications, or other important personal information. The pieces of data gathered by a Trojan Horse are then sent to other clients.

    Tunneling — Also called port forwarding, this is the broadcasting of information required for private or within a corporate network via public network. The public network is oblivious that the broadcast is an element of a private connection. It is done through the encapsulation of private protocol information within a public transmission.

    Tweak — is the fine tuning or minute alterations of hardware or software. It is also used in the modifications of standards of well-defined variables to attain the required result. Tweaking is not always a good thing since it can compromise the reliability of a certain application.

    Tweak UI — provides the access to various hidden settings in Windows OS. It is a component of PowerToys tools supplied by Microsoft. This will permit the user to alter Windows appearance and tasks, as well as to assign special commands to Windows Explorer.

    TX-2 — An Operating System founded on the Lincoln TX-0 system. It was acknowledged for its character in the advancement of human-computer interface and artificial intelligence. TX-2, a 36-bit 64k of core memory, is a transistor-based Operating System.

    Typosquatting — the method of taking advantage of common user typos upon accessing a website. When a domain name is entered incorrectly, the site will be rerouted to a different website. Typosquatting is also known as URL hijacking.

    Ucleaner — A false anti-spyware application that convinces a user to run a free scan on their computers. It is sometimes called Ultimate Cleaner that claims to fix infected computers which may have speed problems and site redirections. Ucleaner may also perform other capabilities of spyware applications since it is one of them.

    UNIX — is an Operating System produced by Bell labs and AT&T employee in 1969. UNIX OS is used in workstations and servers. The client-server and UNIX settings were vital components in the maturity of World Wide Web. It helps restructure computers to become network-centered.

    URL (Uniform Resource Locator) — A class of URI (Uniform Resource Identifier) that indicates an available identified resource and the tools used to retrieve it. In modern language, the URL is identified as World Wide Web address.

    Variable Resistor — Also known as potentiometer. Instead of using three wires, it incorporates two connecting wires. The variable resistor permits the interface to manage the current passing through. It permits the interface to adjust resistance between nodes in a circuit.

    VirtualDub — A 32-bit video processing/capture tool for Windows OS. It can process large quantities of files and is used for video filters over third-party. VirtualDub is primarily used for managing AVI files and for video frame serving.

    VirtualHost — A chunk of configuration used to generate independent portion of configuration that may relate to a specific IP address or hostname. It is in union with dummy system interface or IP aliasing to launch virtual servers operating on a single machine. When using the port command within the VirtualHost, it can establish a virtual server using the same IP address.

    WAMP (Windows, Apache, MySql, PHP) — elements of the bundled independently-generated applications installed within PC’s running under Microsoft Windows Operating Systems. The communication of these applications created a unique and dynamic Web page that can be provided over a network. Apache is the Server. MySQL is the database manager. PHP is the programming language.

    WannaBrowser — A tool used to test HTML outputs for numerous HTTP agents. It answers the query about what type of HTML code is executed for various browsers. It was primarily used to test heavy graphics websites to be able to show its exact content.

    WAP (Wireless Application Protocol) — A wireless communication designed to access the Internet with the use of PDA or cellular phones. Basic services of computers are provided in a WAP browser. Wireless Markup Language is WAP converted websites accessible by WAP browser.

    Web Accessibility — creates websites with features that are more noticeable by users. It takes the skilled and non-skilled users into consideration. This is a way of making the Web even more user-friendly.

    Webalizer — is a GPL program that executes an analysis of Web page, from usage logs and access. It is one of the frequently used Web server management tools. The statistics are exhibited graphically using various time frames, hours, days, and months.

    Web Browser — is a software program that permits the interaction and display of images, texts, videos, information, as well as other information found in a website. Web browsers are known as an HTTP agent. It also permits a user to easily and quickly obtain information on the Internet.

    Web Crawler — is an application that browses the entire Web in an automated mode. It is mostly used to generate copies of every site visited in order for the search engine to provide index for fast searches. Web crawlers are used to gather information, check links, Web maintenance, as well as HTML code validation.

    Web Directory/Link Directory — A listing on WWW (World Wide Web) that focuses on connecting and categorizing its links. The Web Directory categorizes the entire website. It allows website owners to submit site inclusions directly.

    Weblog — sometimes referred to as Web log. This is a website comprised of string of entries organized in reversed order. The data or document is written by the administrator or may be added by a user. Weblog is normally applied to a specific theme or subject. It consists of the gathered data from individuals of collaboration.

    Webmaster — known as Web developer, architect, administrator, or site author. It is an individual in charge of the design, maintenance, marketing, or development of a website. A webmaster is expert in HTML and can manage a whole Web operation. He is also responsible for the management and regulation of access of various users accessing the website.

    Webring — is the compilation of all the websites on the Internet connected together to form a circular pattern. It is also used as search engine organization method to advance the ranking of the search engine. Webring is usually organized using a particular theme. It frequently includes a moderator responsible for accepting the Web pages to be included.

    Web Traffic — known as the quantity of information broadcasted and received within a Web search or to a Web page. Web traffic can be described by a website that watches the outgoing and incoming traffic to be able to pinpoint what page is popular to that site.

    Wordtracker — A program that enables users to find search-related keywords and phrases. This is a Web-based service. The wordtracker also gives information on how often a keyword is being searched by others or how many sites use the phrase.

    XHTML — the reconstruction of three HTML4 types of documents. It is known as a programming language identical to the HTML, but follows the rules of XML structure. It uses a set of XML tool to allow the automatic processing of documents to be executed.

    XML (Extensible Markup Language) — used to generate ordinary information to be able to distribute the data and the format on WWW and Intranets. XML contains a markup icon that illustrates the elements of a file or page. XML uses an easy-to-use subset for the creation of data structure.

    XSPF (XML Shareable Playlist Format) — A class of data format used to share digital media playlist which can be accessed on portable device and PC. This type of format is an XML-based for digital media. XSPF is projected to offer playlist portability.

    Zombie Computer — An internet connected computer compromised by a hacker, virus, or a trojan horse. It includes a backdoor or a concealed application. The backdoor will be used by the hacker to remotely manage the zombie computer. Zombie computers are used to execute malicious functions.

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