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  • Data Link Layer

    • DSL (Digital Subscriber Line)

      DSL (Digital Subscriber Line)

      Digital Subscriber Line or Digital Subscriber Loop (DSL) is a type of high-speed Internet technology that enables transmission of digital data via the wires of a telephone network. DSL does not interfere with the telephone line; the same line can be used for both Internet and regular telephone services. The download speed of DSL ranges

    • PPP (Point-to-Point Protocol)

      PPP (Point-to-Point Protocol)

      PPP (Point-to-Point Protocol) is the most widely used method for transporting IP packets over a serial link between the user and the Internet Service Provider (ISP). Although PPP is primarily used over dialup lines, variants such as PPoE (PPP over Ethernet) and PPoA (PPP over ATM) extend PPP to new data-link layer protocols. PPP was

    • DSL Splitter

      DSL Splitter

      A DSL splitter, like a DSL filter, is a device used to prevent interference problems. It filters the low frequencies of the telephone line from the high-frequency ADSL line. However, the installation of a DSL splitter requires the help of a technician to split the main telephone cable into 2 lines unlike a DSL filter

    • ISDN 30

      ISDN 30

      ISDN 30 is a type of Integrated Service Digital Network system that is used for the transmission of voice and data over wires. ISDN 30 is one of the most economical and efficient communication systems. It is used in medium as well as large businesses. Through ISDN 30, business organizations and call centers can get

    • DOCSIS (Data Over Cable Service Interface Specification)

      DOCSIS (Data Over Cable Service Interface Specification)

      Data Over Cable Service Interface Specification (DOCSIS) defines the interface standards for cable modems and supporting equipment involved in high speed data transfer and distribution over cable television system networks. It permits additional high-speed data transfer over an existing cable TV system and is widely used by television operators to offer Internet access through an

    • How Do ADSL Microfilters Work?

      How Do ADSL Microfilters Work?

      ADSL Internet Access Asynchronous Digital Subscriber Line (ADSL) is a broadband Internet option that is commonly available in many locations. Asynchronous only means that the download speeds and the upload speeds are different (with the upload speeds usually being significantly lower) and provides a fast option to browse the web. Internet access through ADSL requires one

    • PPP Authentication Protocols

      PPP Authentication Protocols

      Windows Server 2003 and Windows XP support the following PPP authentication protocols: PAP or Password Authentication Protocol The oldest forms of authentication schemes used where the user credential are sent in plain text. This is not the securest form of passing authentication credentials as anybody can use a third party sniffer program and capture these

    • ISDN (Integrated Services Digital Network)

      ISDN (Integrated Services Digital Network)

      ISDN (Integrated Services Digital Network) is a system of digital phone connections that has been designed for sending voice, video, and data simultaneously over digital or ordinary phone lines, with a much faster speed and higher quality than an analog system can provide. ISDN is basically a set of protocol for making and breaking circuit

    • 802.1p

      802.1p

      802.1p is an IEEE standard that describes mechanisms to prioritize traffic and perform dynamic multicast filtering. Because of its support for priority specification, 802.1p is important for providing Quality of Service (QoS) for better reliability and quality. Quality of Service QoS is a mechanism that allows for better handling of data that passes over a

    • VDSL (Very High Bit-Rate Digital Subscriber Line)

      VDSL (Very High Bit-Rate Digital Subscriber Line)

      Broadband has revolutionized the way we view and use the internet. The two main types of broadband technology that have pervaded the market are Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line (ADSL) and cable modems. Both these technologies are a huge leap from the days of the 56 Kbps dial-up connections, with maximum speeds ranging between 8 to

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