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  • Data Link Layer

    • ISDN BRI

      ISDN BRI

      ISDN BRI (Basic Rate Interface) is a standard Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN) service meant for residential and small scale business Internet connections. There is another type of ISDN configuration called the Primary Rate Interface (PRI) that is designed to provide higher bandwidth. The BRI configuration defined in the physical layer standard I.430 produced by

    • Tunneling

      Tunneling

      Tunneling is a way in which data is transferred between two networks securely. All the data being transferred is fragmented into smaller packets or frames and then passed through the tunnel. This process is different from a normal data transfer between nodes. Every frame passing through the tunnel will be encrypted with an additional layer

    • How fast is ADSL Speed?

      How fast is ADSL Speed?

      ADSL (Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line) options are available in many locations. The speeds will vary for the service in many ways depending on several factors. The reason why it is called an Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line is simple, as the speed for downloads will be significantly faster than the upload speed. This is because consumer DSL services are

    • PPP (Point-to-Point Protocol)

      PPP (Point-to-Point Protocol)

      PPP (Point-to-Point Protocol) is the most widely used method for transporting IP packets over a serial link between the user and the Internet Service Provider (ISP). Although PPP is primarily used over dialup lines, variants such as PPoE (PPP over Ethernet) and PPoA (PPP over ATM) extend PPP to new data-link layer protocols. PPP was

    • How to Clear the ARP Cache

      How to Clear the ARP Cache

      ARP (Address Resolution Protocol) Cache is a technique used to store “mappings” of  OSI Model Network Layer addresses (IP addresses) to corresponding OSI Model Data Link addresses (MAC addresses). Due to a variety of possible circumstances, ARP cache can become damaged requiring the end user or administrator to determine how to clear the ARP cache

    • MAC Addresses (Media Access Control)

      MAC Addresses (Media Access Control)

      A MAC address is an address that exists on Layer 2 of the OSI Model. Layer 2 of the OSI model is the Data Link Layer. The Data Link Layer consists of two sublayers, the Media Access Control (MAC) layer and the Logical Link Control (LLC) layer. The MAC sublayer controls how a network node

    • Ethernet

      Ethernet

      Ethernet is the most common LAN (Local Area Network) technology in use today. Xerox developed Ethernet in the 1970s, and became popular after Digital Equipment Corporation and Intel joined Xerox in developing the Ethernet standard in 1980. Ethernet was officially accepted as IEEE standard 802.3 in 1985. The term “Ethernet” is now used to refer

    • ISDN Modem

      ISDN Modem

      ISDN – otherwise known as integrated services digital network – is a digital phone connection that can transmit data, voice and video over a normal telephone line. It was meant to be a method of transmitting information much faster than a typical analog phone; however, the phone industry was able to survive the arrival of

    • What is VDSL2?

      What is VDSL2?

      VDSL2 is an acronym which stands for Very High Bit Rate Digital Subscriber Line Generation 2. This is based on of the original Very High Bit Rate Digital Subscriber Line (VDSL) but runs on a different frequency (30 MHz) over 7 different bands to produce extremely high bandwidth capabilities. The service for VDSL2 is available

    • What is a Dial-Up Connection?

      What is a Dial-Up Connection?

      A dial-up connection is any connection that is connected through a regular phone line. When that phone line is connected to a modem and then configured to dial a specific number, a user can access the Internet. It is the slowest form of Internet connection, but that is a result of also being the most

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