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  • Data Link Layer

    • What is a Dial-Up Connection?

      What is a Dial-Up Connection?

      A dial-up connection is any connection that is connected through a regular phone line. When that phone line is connected to a modem and then configured to dial a specific number, a user can access the Internet. It is the slowest form of Internet connection, but that is a result of also being the most

    • ISDN 30

      ISDN 30

      ISDN 30 is a type of Integrated Service Digital Network system that is used for the transmission of voice and data over wires. ISDN 30 is one of the most economical and efficient communication systems. It is used in medium as well as large businesses. Through ISDN 30, business organizations and call centers can get

    • How to Change a MAC Address

      How to Change a MAC Address

      Every Ethernet card had a factory assigned MAC address burned into it when it was made. At times, users may want to change this MAC address to one of their choice. One of the main reasons for doing this is to get around access control lists(s) on a specific router or server, either by hiding

    • PPP (Point-to-Point Protocol)

      PPP (Point-to-Point Protocol)

      PPP (Point-to-Point Protocol) is the most widely used method for transporting IP packets over a serial link between the user and the Internet Service Provider (ISP). Although PPP is primarily used over dialup lines, variants such as PPoE (PPP over Ethernet) and PPoA (PPP over ATM) extend PPP to new data-link layer protocols. PPP was

    • Ethernet Hub

      Ethernet Hub

      For any two devices to be connected, they need a common place, or a hub, as it is called in the computer world. It basically connects multiple computers together. Most of the hubs available in the market today support Ethernet standards. This is why they are called Ethernet hubs, and are most commonly used in

    • What is VDSL2?

      What is VDSL2?

      VDSL2 is an acronym which stands for Very High Bit Rate Digital Subscriber Line Generation 2. This is based on of the original Very High Bit Rate Digital Subscriber Line (VDSL) but runs on a different frequency (30 MHz) over 7 different bands to produce extremely high bandwidth capabilities. The service for VDSL2 is available

    • ISDN BRI

      ISDN BRI

      ISDN BRI (Basic Rate Interface) is a standard Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN) service meant for residential and small scale business Internet connections. There is another type of ISDN configuration called the Primary Rate Interface (PRI) that is designed to provide higher bandwidth. The BRI configuration defined in the physical layer standard I.430 produced by

    • VLAN (Virtual Local Area Network)

      VLAN (Virtual Local Area Network)

      VLAN (Virtual Local Area Network) is a logical local area network (or LAN) that extends beyond a single traditional LAN to a group of LAN segments, given specific configurations. Since a VLAN is a logical entity, its creation and configuration is done completely in software. How is a VLAN Identified? Since a VLAN is a

    • MAC Addresses (Media Access Control)

      MAC Addresses (Media Access Control)

      A MAC address is an address that exists on Layer 2 of the OSI Model. Layer 2 of the OSI model is the Data Link Layer. The Data Link Layer consists of two sublayers, the Media Access Control (MAC) layer and the Logical Link Control (LLC) layer. The MAC sublayer controls how a network node

    • How fast is ADSL Speed?

      How fast is ADSL Speed?

      ADSL (Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line) options are available in many locations. The speeds will vary for the service in many ways depending on several factors. The reason why it is called an Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line is simple, as the speed for downloads will be significantly faster than the upload speed. This is because consumer DSL services are

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