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  • Data Link Layer

    • Ethernet Switch

      Ethernet Switch

      A switch is something that is used to turn various electronic devices on or off. However, in computer networking, a switch is used to connect multiple computers with each other. Since it is an external device it becomes part of the hardware peripherals used in the operation of a computer system. This connection is done

    • Ethernet Splitter

      Ethernet Splitter

      An Ethernet splitter can split a single Internet connection so that two or more computers can connect to the Internet simultaneously. It can also create additional connections for other computers on a network, which can reduce the overall amount of cabling required to setup a network. Unfortunately, Ethernet splitters cannot resolve the network collision issues

    • ATM (Asynchronous Transfer Mode)

      ATM (Asynchronous Transfer Mode)

      ATM (Asynchronous Transfer Mode) is a technological system developed for both local and wide area networks (LAN and WAN), and designed to handle data as well as video and voice traffic in real time, all at the same time. The system architecture makes use of switches that set up logical circuits at both ends of

    • ADSL Router

      ADSL Router

      An ADSL router is also known as a DSL modem. The router connects the computer to the DSL phone line so the ADSL service can be used. Some countries also use the term NTBBA (Network Termination BroadBand Access). There are some ADSL routers that are also capable of sharing a single Internet connection with a

    • DSLAM (Digital Subscriber Line Access Multiplexer)

      DSLAM (Digital Subscriber Line Access Multiplexer)

      Faster connections to the Internet from phone lines are possible through a Digital Subscriber Line Access Multiplexer (abbreviated to DSLAM).  The role of this network device is located in the telephone exchanges of providers for the services.  The service works by taking advantage of the multiplexing techniques used to connect several Digital Subscriber Lines to

    • Ethernet Cable Pinout

      Ethernet Cable Pinout

      Ethernet cable connects a network interface card (NIC) with a hub or Ethernet switch. Ethernet cables can be purchased from a computer store. They come in two categories, flat and braided. The flat or solid cable is used when there is a need for a longer cable run. However, it is not flexible. Thus, its

    • Tunneling

      Tunneling

      Tunneling is a way in which data is transferred between two networks securely. All the data being transferred is fragmented into smaller packets or frames and then passed through the tunnel. This process is different from a normal data transfer between nodes. Every frame passing through the tunnel will be encrypted with an additional layer

    • How to Change a MAC Address

      How to Change a MAC Address

      Every Ethernet card had a factory assigned MAC address burned into it when it was made. At times, users may want to change this MAC address to one of their choice. One of the main reasons for doing this is to get around access control lists(s) on a specific router or server, either by hiding

    • ISDN BRI

      ISDN BRI

      ISDN BRI (Basic Rate Interface) is a standard Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN) service meant for residential and small scale business Internet connections. There is another type of ISDN configuration called the Primary Rate Interface (PRI) that is designed to provide higher bandwidth. The BRI configuration defined in the physical layer standard I.430 produced by

    • MAC Addresses (Media Access Control)

      MAC Addresses (Media Access Control)

      A MAC address is an address that exists on Layer 2 of the OSI Model. Layer 2 of the OSI model is the Data Link Layer. The Data Link Layer consists of two sublayers, the Media Access Control (MAC) layer and the Logical Link Control (LLC) layer. The MAC sublayer controls how a network node

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