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  • Data Link Layer

    • VLAN (Virtual Local Area Network)

      VLAN (Virtual Local Area Network)

      VLAN (Virtual Local Area Network) is a logical local area network (or LAN) that extends beyond a single traditional LAN to a group of LAN segments, given specific configurations. Since a VLAN is a logical entity, its creation and configuration is done completely in software. How is a VLAN Identified? Since a VLAN is a

    • VLAN Hopping

      VLAN Hopping

      VLAN Hopping is one of the primary VLAN based attacks used by hackers to infiltrate network security. VLAN hopping is used to attack a network by sending packets to a port which is generally not accessible. VLAN hopping attacks are mainly conducted in the Dynamic Trunking Protocol and, in some cases; the attacks are targeted

    • DSL Splitter

      DSL Splitter

      A DSL splitter, like a DSL filter, is a device used to prevent interference problems. It filters the low frequencies of the telephone line from the high-frequency ADSL line. However, the installation of a DSL splitter requires the help of a technician to split the main telephone cable into 2 lines unlike a DSL filter

    • MTU (Maximum Transmission Unit)

      MTU (Maximum Transmission Unit)

      The MTU (Maximum Transmission Unit) is the size of the largest datagram that can be sent over a network. If a datagram is larger than an MTU, the datagram must be fragmented into multiple smaller datagrams. Default MTU Sizes Most network technologies have default MTU sizes which may be changed by the network administrator. Network

    • DSL (Digital Subscriber Line)

      DSL (Digital Subscriber Line)

      Digital Subscriber Line or Digital Subscriber Loop (DSL) is a type of high-speed Internet technology that enables transmission of digital data via the wires of a telephone network. DSL does not interfere with the telephone line; the same line can be used for both Internet and regular telephone services. The download speed of DSL ranges

    • ADSL Modems

      ADSL Modems

      Description of ADSL A special Internet service which is available in many areas is called the Asymmetrical Digital Subscriber Line (ADSL). ADSL connections use existing copper telephone lines to transmit data to and from the ISP. These connections may be limited by proximity to the ISP or the telephone company because the data will lose strength through

    • Broadband over Power Lines

      Broadband over Power Lines

      Broadband over Power Lines, or BPL, refers to the transmission (sending and receiving) of digital data through existing power cables and electricity distribution infrastructures. This can be viewed as a mere variation on using television cables; instead of using television cables, though, power transmission lines are going to be used. The Broadband over Power Lines

    • PPP (Point-to-Point Protocol)

      PPP (Point-to-Point Protocol)

      PPP (Point-to-Point Protocol) is the most widely used method for transporting IP packets over a serial link between the user and the Internet Service Provider (ISP). Although PPP is primarily used over dialup lines, variants such as PPoE (PPP over Ethernet) and PPoA (PPP over ATM) extend PPP to new data-link layer protocols. PPP was

    • ATM (Asynchronous Transfer Mode)

      ATM (Asynchronous Transfer Mode)

      ATM (Asynchronous Transfer Mode) is a technological system developed for both local and wide area networks (LAN and WAN), and designed to handle data as well as video and voice traffic in real time, all at the same time. The system architecture makes use of switches that set up logical circuits at both ends of

    • How Do ADSL Microfilters Work?

      How Do ADSL Microfilters Work?

      ADSL Internet Access Asynchronous Digital Subscriber Line (ADSL) is a broadband Internet option that is commonly available in many locations. Asynchronous only means that the download speeds and the upload speeds are different (with the upload speeds usually being significantly lower) and provides a fast option to browse the web. Internet access through ADSL requires one

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