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  • Data Link Layer

    • Ethernet Cable Pinout

      Ethernet Cable Pinout

      Ethernet cable connects a network interface card (NIC) with a hub or Ethernet switch. Ethernet cables can be purchased from a computer store. They come in two categories, flat and braided. The flat or solid cable is used when there is a need for a longer cable run. However, it is not flexible. Thus, its

    • MTU (Maximum Transmission Unit)

      MTU (Maximum Transmission Unit)

      The MTU (Maximum Transmission Unit) is the size of the largest datagram that can be sent over a network. If a datagram is larger than an MTU, the datagram must be fragmented into multiple smaller datagrams. Default MTU Sizes Most network technologies have default MTU sizes which may be changed by the network administrator. Network

    • CSMA/CD


      CSMA/CD (Carrier Sense Multiple Access / Collision Detection) is the protocol used in Ethernet networks to ensure that only one network node is transmitting on the network wire at any one time. Carrier Sense means that every Ethernet device listens to the Ethernet wire before it attempts to transmit. If the Ethernet device senses that

    • VLAN Hopping

      VLAN Hopping

      VLAN Hopping is one of the primary VLAN based attacks used by hackers to infiltrate network security. VLAN hopping is used to attack a network by sending packets to a port which is generally not accessible. VLAN hopping attacks are mainly conducted in the Dynamic Trunking Protocol and, in some cases; the attacks are targeted

    • DSL (Digital Subscriber Line)

      DSL (Digital Subscriber Line)

      Digital Subscriber Line or Digital Subscriber Loop (DSL) is a type of high-speed Internet technology that enables transmission of digital data via the wires of a telephone network. DSL does not interfere with the telephone line; the same line can be used for both Internet and regular telephone services. The download speed of DSL ranges

    • ISDN (Integrated Services Digital Network)

      ISDN (Integrated Services Digital Network)

      ISDN (Integrated Services Digital Network) is a system of digital phone connections that has been designed for sending voice, video, and data simultaneously over digital or ordinary phone lines, with a much faster speed and higher quality than an analog system can provide. ISDN is basically a set of protocol for making and breaking circuit

    • ADSL Modems

      ADSL Modems

      Description of ADSL A special Internet service which is available in many areas is called the Asymmetrical Digital Subscriber Line (ADSL). ADSL connections use existing copper telephone lines to transmit data to and from the ISP. These connections may be limited by proximity to the ISP or the telephone company because the data will lose strength through

    • How to Change a MAC Address

      How to Change a MAC Address

      Every Ethernet card had a factory assigned MAC address burned into it when it was made. At times, users may want to change this MAC address to one of their choice. One of the main reasons for doing this is to get around access control lists(s) on a specific router or server, either by hiding

    • 802.1p


      802.1p is an IEEE standard that describes mechanisms to prioritize traffic and perform dynamic multicast filtering. Because of its support for priority specification, 802.1p is important for providing Quality of Service (QoS) for better reliability and quality. Quality of Service QoS is a mechanism that allows for better handling of data that passes over a

    • Proxy ARP

      Proxy ARP

      ARP (Address Resolution Protocol) is used by network systems to convert system communications from the routable layer 3 IP protocol to the non-routable layer 2 data link layer protocols. In most cases, you don’t need to modify this behavior at all, and system communications are optimal. In special circumstances it is preferable to have another

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