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  • Data Link Layer

    • ISDN Modem

      ISDN Modem

      ISDN – otherwise known as integrated services digital network – is a digital phone connection that can transmit data, voice and video over a normal telephone line. It was meant to be a method of transmitting information much faster than a typical analog phone; however, the phone industry was able to survive the arrival of

    • ADSL Router

      ADSL Router

      An ADSL router is also known as a DSL modem. The router connects the computer to the DSL phone line so the ADSL service can be used. Some countries also use the term NTBBA (Network Termination BroadBand Access). There are some ADSL routers that are also capable of sharing a single Internet connection with a

    • Ethernet Switch

      Ethernet Switch

      A switch is something that is used to turn various electronic devices on or off. However, in computer networking, a switch is used to connect multiple computers with each other. Since it is an external device it becomes part of the hardware peripherals used in the operation of a computer system. This connection is done

    • How fast is ADSL Speed?

      How fast is ADSL Speed?

      ADSL (Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line) options are available in many locations. The speeds will vary for the service in many ways depending on several factors. The reason why it is called an Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line is simple, as the speed for downloads will be significantly faster than the upload speed. This is because consumer DSL services are

    • ISDN BRI

      ISDN BRI

      ISDN BRI (Basic Rate Interface) is a standard Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN) service meant for residential and small scale business Internet connections. There is another type of ISDN configuration called the Primary Rate Interface (PRI) that is designed to provide higher bandwidth. The BRI configuration defined in the physical layer standard I.430 produced by

    • What is VDSL2?

      What is VDSL2?

      VDSL2 is an acronym which stands for Very High Bit Rate Digital Subscriber Line Generation 2. This is based on of the original Very High Bit Rate Digital Subscriber Line (VDSL) but runs on a different frequency (30 MHz) over 7 different bands to produce extremely high bandwidth capabilities. The service for VDSL2 is available

    • ISDN 30

      ISDN 30

      ISDN 30 is a type of Integrated Service Digital Network system that is used for the transmission of voice and data over wires. ISDN 30 is one of the most economical and efficient communication systems. It is used in medium as well as large businesses. Through ISDN 30, business organizations and call centers can get

    • Symmetric DSL

      Symmetric DSL

      Symmetric Digital Subscriber Line (SDSL) is a kind of one kind of Digital Subscriber Line (DSL) used to provide high-speed Internet connectivity. Symmetric DSL is called “symmetrical” because the upstream and downstream connections have the same bandwidth. SDSL maintains the same high speed in both directions while working over the existing “twisted-pair” cables that exist

    • ISDN PRI

      ISDN PRI

      A PRI (Primary Rate Interface) is a telecommunication standard used in the Integrated Services Digital Network or ISDN for carrying multiple DS0 voice and data transmissions between two physical locations. PRI was developed specifically for industrial or large quantity users. It is an industrial ISDN line, while the Basic Rate Interface, or BRI, caters to

    • ARP Cache

      ARP Cache

      The ARP cache is a table that stores mappings between Data Link Layer addresses and Network Layer addresses. The Data Link Layer addresses are usually MAC addresses and the Network Layer addresses are most frequently IP addresses. The Operating System stores the ARP cache in RAM. Displaying the ARP Cache Under most Unix and Microsoft

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