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    • Linux


      Linux is a free, open source operating system that competes with the Windows Operating Systems and Mac OS X. Linux is widely used on a number of devices such as servers, desktops, laptops, smartphones, PDAs, game consoles, tablet computers, supercomputers, and mainframes. Linux controls only about 4.9% of the market share of desktop computers while

    • How to Use the Unix Top Command

      How to Use the Unix Top Command

      Top is a small, but powerful program on both Unix and Linux systems. Its purpose is to allow users to monitor processes on their system. It has two main sections. The first displays general information such as the load averages, number of running and sleeping tasks, and overall CPU and memory usage. The second main

    • How to Use the Unix Sort Command

      How to Use the Unix Sort Command

      The Unix sort command is a command for the Unix family of operating systems. It is designed to sort whatever information you give it. The command can be used for a variety of purposes, but it is most frequently employed when there are a number of different files which need to be ordered in some

    • How to Setup a Linux File Server

      How to Setup a Linux File Server

      One way that a small business that requires a file server can save thousands of dollars per year is to set up a Linux file server. Linux is an open source software platform that, in many ways, is just as good as or better than other types of platforms including Microsoft and Sun. Small businesses

    • Bootable Linux Distributions

      Bootable Linux Distributions

      Bootable distributions of the Linux operating system are becoming very popular for use in securing networks, testing network security, and conducting forensics after suspected intrusions. Local Area Security Linux Local Area Security Linux is a ‘Live CD’ distribution with a small footprint. Containing over 200 information security and administration related tools, as well as a

    • UMASK


      umask is a Unix shell built-in command that automatically sets file permissions on newly created files. The umask command can be confusing to use because it does work as a mask. In other words, the user sets the permissions that he/she does not want in the umask. To calculate permissions that will result from specific

    • Unix Shell Scripting Tutorials

      Unix Shell Scripting Tutorials

      Unix Shell Scripting Tutorials This Unix shell scripting tutorial provides samples and instructional materials that are easy to understand and useful for Unix shell scripting. It also offers illustrated samples that will helps users explore different avenues of Unix shell scripting.   Bourne Shell Programming Tutorial Learn how to use the Unix shell with this

    • How to Audit Unix Passwords

      How to Audit Unix Passwords

      To audit Unix passwords, you must compare each encrypted password in the Unix password file with a set of potential encrypted passwords. These potential encrypted passwords are created by encrypting every password in a list of plaintext passwords. This is an example of a dictionary attack. The Unix passwd File Location The traditional location for

    • Unix Signals

      Unix Signals

      A signal is a message that can be sent to a running process. Programs, users, or administrators can initiate signals. For example, the proper method of telling the Internet Daemon (inetd) to re-read its configuration file is to send it a SIGHUP signal. For example, if the current process ID (PID) of inetd is 4140,

    • How to Create a Cron Job

      How to Create a Cron Job

      Unix users write, edit, list, and remove cron jobs using the `crontab` command. `crontab -e` takes users into their default editor to edit their crontab entries. `crontab -l` lists their crontab. `crontab -r` removes their crontab. crontab Security If the cron.allow file exists, then the user must be listed in that file in order to

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