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    • SWR Meters

      SWR Meters

      Standing Wave Ratio (SWR) meters are used to measure the standing wave ratio in a communications transmission line. The meter can display how much a transmission line and the load are mismatched (normally a radio antenna). It also determines how effective the impedance is of matching efforts. In CB and ham radio circles, the SWR

    • Integrated Circuit

      Integrated Circuit

      An integrated circuit (IC), also called a microchip, is an electronic circuit etched onto a silicon chip. Their main advantages are low cost, low power, high performance, and very small size. History The integrated circuit was invented in 1958 by Jack Kirby (1923-2005), an American engineer. In 2000, he won the Nobel prize in physics

    • Galvanic Isolator

      Galvanic Isolator

      A galvanic isolator is any device that connects two circuits together without allowing electricity to flow directly from one circuit to the other. Instead of transferring electricity through direct contact, galvanic isolators use other means, such as electromagnetism, mechanical devices, optical systems, or acoustic systems to convert the electricity into another form of energy, transfer

    • FSK (Frequency Shift Keying)

      FSK (Frequency Shift Keying)

      FSK (Frequency Shift Keying) is also known as frequency shift modulation and frequency shift signaling. Frequency Shift Keying is a data signal converted into a specific frequency or tone in order to transmit it over wire, cable, optical fiber or wireless media to a destination point. The history of FSK dates back to the early

    • Shunt


      An electrical shunt is a component used to transfer currents away from parts of a circuit. Components used as shunts include the resistor, capacitor, diode, and gas discharge tube. The main uses for electrical shunts are to reduce current load in meters, filter out high frequencies, and protect circuits from surges. The term shunt is

    • Ku Band

      Ku Band

      The Ku band (Kurtz-under band) is primarily used for satellite communications, particularly for editing and broadcasting satellite television. This band is split into multiple segments broken down into geographical regions, as the ITU (International Telecommunication Union) determines. The Ku band is a portion of the electromagnetic spectrum in the microwave range of frequencies ranging from

    • Types of Projector Lamps

      Types of Projector Lamps

      A projector lamp is used to transfer an image from a multimedia projector onto a larger screen. Earlier halogen bulbs were used for many years for projection purposes, but were discontinued as halogen produced a yellow tone on the images. A projector lamp relies on an intense light bulb, called a metal halide bulb, to

    • IC Design

      IC Design

      In the modern world of data and information, computer systems need circuits that are able to process and transfer that information. Because of this, a great deal of resources and innovation go into creating more advanced circuitry in order to increase data transfer rates and make computer systems smaller. This article will demonstrate how integrated

    • Transponder


      A transponder is an automatic electronic monitoring or control device that receives, cross-examines, amplifies and retransmits the arriving signal. It is primarily implemented in wireless communication. The word ‘Transponder’ itself is a combination of two words; transmitter and responder (occasionally abbreviated to TPDR, TR, XPNDR, and XPDR). A transponder works by receiving a signal on

    • MCPC (Multiple Channel Per Carrier)

      MCPC (Multiple Channel Per Carrier)

      MCPC stands for Multiple Channel Per Carrier. MCPC is a form of satellite transmission where each carrier is utilized to transmit multiple channels. MCPC transmits multiple video or audio channels on one carrier by utilizing Time Division Multiplexing (TDM). The alternative to MCPC is SCPC (Single Channel Per Carrier). MCPC is used much more than

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