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    • How to Reset a Kenwood Security Code

      How to Reset a Kenwood Security Code

      Four digit security codes protect Kenwood car stereos from theft. If a thief steals a Kenwood car stereo, he/she will not be able to use the stereo until the secret four digit security code is entered. Unfortunately, many legitimate owners are also locked out of their Kenwood car stereos due to these security codes. This

    • C Band

      C Band

      C Band is the original frequency allocation for communications satellites. C-Band uses 3.7-4.2GHz for downlink and 5.925-6.425Ghz for uplink. The lower frequencies that C Band uses perform better under adverse weather conditions than the Ku band or Ka band frequencies. C Band Variants Slight C Band frequency variations are approved for use in various parts

    • Pulse Amplitude Modulation

      Pulse Amplitude Modulation

      Pulse Amplitude Modulation (PAM) is the simplest form of pulse modulation. This technique transmits data by varying the voltage or power amplitudes of individual pulses in a timed sequence of electromagnetic pulses. In other words, the data to be transmitted is encoded in the amplitude of a series of signal pulses. PAM can also be

    • Shunt


      An electrical shunt is a component used to transfer currents away from parts of a circuit. Components used as shunts include the resistor, capacitor, diode, and gas discharge tube. The main uses for electrical shunts are to reduce current load in meters, filter out high frequencies, and protect circuits from surges. The term shunt is

    • What is a Variac?

      What is a Variac?

      Variac is the trademark name of a variable autotransformer. A variable autotransformer is a single-coil transformer in which two portions of the same coil are used as the primary and the secondary. Variable autotransformers are used for the same purposes as regular transformers, but handle lower voltages. They also differ from regular autotransformers in that

    • Quadrature Amplitude Modulation

      Quadrature Amplitude Modulation

      Quadrature Amplitude Modulation (QAM) is a complicated name for a simple technique. In the simplest of terms, Quadrature amplitude modulation is the combination of amplitude modulation and phase shift keying. More technically, quadrature amplitude modulation is a system of modulation in which data is transferred by modulating the amplitude of two separate carrier waves, mostly

    • Voltage Drop

      Voltage Drop

      Voltage is the measurement for the electrical force between two points that drives the current. More specifically, voltage is the measure of the energy per unit charge that is equal to the electrical potential difference between two measured points. Volts are normally measured by a voltmeter. Voltage drop is the reduction in voltage in an

    • Integrated Circuit

      Integrated Circuit

      An integrated circuit (IC), also called a microchip, is an electronic circuit etched onto a silicon chip. Their main advantages are low cost, low power, high performance, and very small size. History The integrated circuit was invented in 1958 by Jack Kirby (1923-2005), an American engineer. In 2000, he won the Nobel prize in physics

    • How Speakers Blow

      How Speakers Blow

      A speaker is a device that converts electrical signals into actual sound. Speakers accomplish this by using a magnetic reader or antenna to receive an electrical signal from a radio station or magnetic storage device. The magnetic reader is then connected via a wire to an electromagnet that can be turned on and off in

    • Chebyshev Filter

      Chebyshev Filter

      A Chebyshev filter can either be analog or digital, and is an improvement on the Butterworth filter as it has a steeper roll-off and a greater passband and stopband ripple. These filters minimize overall error between actual and idealized filter characteristics for the designed range of the filter. The filter was named after Pafnuty Chebyshev,

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