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    • Inductor


      An inductor is a conducting coil, wrapped around a core, that creates inductance when an alternating current flows through it. Inductors are used to impede the flow of current in a circuit. The conductor is usually thin magnet wire, and the core is usually air or steel. Working of an Inductor When the alternating current

    • How Sunspots Affect Radio Reception

      How Sunspots Affect Radio Reception

      In order to understand how sunspots effect radio reception, you need to understand that the light waves and radio waves that the sun emits are both categorized as electromagnetic (EM) radiation. While light waves are visible to the human eye, they are still electromagnetic waves that oscillate. There are many electro magnetic waves, some oscillate

    • Frequency Hopping Spread Spectrum

      Frequency Hopping Spread Spectrum

      The Frequency-Hopping Spread Spectrum (FHSS) is a means of transmitting radio signals by shifting a carrier across a number of channels with a pseudorandom sequence that the sending and receiving station knows beforehand. The method is used as a multiple access process in the FH-CDMA (Frequency Hopping Code Division Multiple Access) transmission scheme. What Are

    • What is a BUC?

      What is a BUC?

      A BUC (Block Upconverter) is a device that converts radio signals from a lower frequency to a higher frequency. BUCs are used in satellite uplink transmissions in order to transfer data from a ground based unit to a satellite in orbit that will then be redirected to another ground based unit in separate location. Likewise,

    • Breadboard


      A breadboard is a thin rectangular piece of insulating material used to hold electronic components when making circuit prototypes. They have many rows and columns of conductive points for inserting component terminals and jumper wires. The original breadboards were just wooden boards, presumably used to cut bread on, but the modern versions have plastic cases

    • IC Design

      IC Design

      In the modern world of data and information, computer systems need circuits that are able to process and transfer that information. Because of this, a great deal of resources and innovation go into creating more advanced circuitry in order to increase data transfer rates and make computer systems smaller. This article will demonstrate how integrated

    • Transponder


      A transponder is an automatic electronic monitoring or control device that receives, cross-examines, amplifies and retransmits the arriving signal. It is primarily implemented in wireless communication. The word ‘Transponder’ itself is a combination of two words; transmitter and responder (occasionally abbreviated to TPDR, TR, XPNDR, and XPDR). A transponder works by receiving a signal on

    • FSK (Frequency Shift Keying)

      FSK (Frequency Shift Keying)

      FSK (Frequency Shift Keying) is also known as frequency shift modulation and frequency shift signaling. Frequency Shift Keying is a data signal converted into a specific frequency or tone in order to transmit it over wire, cable, optical fiber or wireless media to a destination point. The history of FSK dates back to the early

    • Azimuth


      Azimuth is a measurement at an angle used in the spherical coordinate system. To find a point of interest, the observer creates a vector that is then projected in a perpendicular fashion onto a reference plane. The resulting angle between the projected vector and the reference vector located on the reference plane is the azimuth.

    • How to Reset a Kenwood Security Code

      How to Reset a Kenwood Security Code

      Four digit security codes protect Kenwood car stereos from theft. If a thief steals a Kenwood car stereo, he/she will not be able to use the stereo until the secret four digit security code is entered. Unfortunately, many legitimate owners are also locked out of their Kenwood car stereos due to these security codes. This

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