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    • Pulse Amplitude Modulation

      Pulse Amplitude Modulation

      Pulse Amplitude Modulation (PAM) is the simplest form of pulse modulation. This technique transmits data by varying the voltage or power amplitudes of individual pulses in a timed sequence of electromagnetic pulses. In other words, the data to be transmitted is encoded in the amplitude of a series of signal pulses. PAM can also be

    • Multimeter

      Multimeter

      A multimeter combines several electrical meters into one hand-held unit. Basic multimeter models measure voltage, current, and resistance. Advanced models also measure temperature, inductance, capacitance, duty cycle, and frequency. They can also test diodes and transistors. Some even work as an oscilloscope. The two main types of multimeters are digital and analogue. Parts of a

    • ODU (Out-Door Unit)

      ODU (Out-Door Unit)

      ODU (Out-Door Unit) refers to the set of satellite equipment which is placed outside of the building. The ODU typically includes a satellite dish, a feedhorn, and a LNB (Low Noise Block). In bi-directional satellite systems, the ODU will also include a BUC (Block Up Convertor). The ODU is connected to the IDU (In-Door-Unit) by

    • S Band

      S Band

      S band is a frequency range from approximately 2 to 4 GHz. S band is used for Digital Audio Radio Satellite (DARS) satellite radio systems such as Sirius XM Satellite Radio.  Sirius XM uses frequencies between 2,320.00 and 2,332.50 MHz, and also between 2,332.50 and 2,345.00 MHz. S band is also used by many weather,

    • Modulation

      Modulation

      Modulation is the process of varying some characteristic of a periodic wave with external signals. Modulation is utilized to send an information bearing signal over long distances. Radio communication superimposes this information bearing signal onto a carrier signal. These high frequency carrier signals can be transmitted over the air easily and are capable of traveling

    • How Speakers Blow

      How Speakers Blow

      A speaker is a device that converts electrical signals into actual sound. Speakers accomplish this by using a magnetic reader or antenna to receive an electrical signal from a radio station or magnetic storage device. The magnetic reader is then connected via a wire to an electromagnet that can be turned on and off in

    • Crystal Radio

      Crystal Radio

      The crystal radio is a rudimentary radio receiver that can be made from a few easy-to-obtain and inexpensive parts. It is unique for this type of radio does not require a battery pack, has no moving parts, and can be built using ordinary household materials, yet it actually works. The only power it receives comes

    • Transformer

      Transformer

      A transformer transfers electrical energy between two circuits. It usually consists of two wire coils wrapped around a core. These coils are called primary and secondary windings. Energy is transferred by mutual induction caused by a changing electromagnetic field. If the coils have different number of turns around the core, the voltage induced in the

    • Circulators

      Circulators

      A circulator is a box-shaped ferrite device that has three or four ports and allows energy from one port to transfer to the next port in line. Circulators are usually used with radio signals but can also be used with microwaves, light, and other electromagnetic waves. This means that a radio signal that is being

    • What is a Momentary Switch?

      What is a Momentary Switch?

      A common question asked by new student of electronics is what is a momentary switch? The short answer is that a momentary switch is a unit capable of turning any electronic device to either an on or off state when an end-user presses the switch. This type of switch can actually represent one of two

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