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    • What Are Pennies Made Of?

      What Are Pennies Made Of?

      Before 1982, the penny was made of copper which is why they, unlike most other coins, don't look silver. However, after 1982, the U.S. government realized that it was too expensive to make a penny–more than the penny was worth in money–so they decided, instead, to make it with a mixture of two different metals.

    • What Causes Copper to Turn Green?

      What Causes Copper to Turn Green?

      Copper turns green because of a process known as oxidation which is the removal of electrons from the substance. Specifically, copper turns green because of something known as copper carbonate. This is the substance that is found on top of copper–whether they be copper pipes, pennies, statues or anything else. So, the cause of copper

    • Mannitol Salt Agar

      Mannitol Salt Agar

      In order to grow a bacterial culture in a lab, a growth medium has to be used to provide the right environment. Mannitol salt agar is a popular bacterial growth medium that biologists use to grow halphile bacteria (these grow fast in high salt concentrations) and can tell the difference between non-pathogenic and pathogenic Staphylococcus

    • What is Magnesium Used For?

      What is Magnesium Used For?

      Magnesium is a chemical substance denoted by the symbol Mg. It forms part of the Group 2 of the periodic table, thus making it an alkaline earth metal. Its atomic number is 12 and it is considered to be the 8th most copious element found in the earth’s crust. In terms of the human body,

    • Vulcanized Rubber

      Vulcanized Rubber

      Vulcanized rubber is a material that undergoes a chemical process known as vulcanization. This process involves mixing natural rubber with additives such as sulfur and other curatives. Vulcanization makes rubber much stronger, more flexible, and more resistant to heat and other environmental conditions. Vulcanized rubber makes both soft and hard objects, ranging from rubber bands

    • Fluorescence Spectroscopy

      Fluorescence Spectroscopy

      In the field of spectroscopy, fluorescence can be analyzed from a sample of material through a special form of electromagnetic spectroscopy. This fluorescence spectroscopy uses a beam of light that is tailored for the type of fluorescence detection needed in compounds. The usual option is an ultraviolet light that is used to excite electrons in

    • What is Mossbauer Spectroscopy?

      What is Mossbauer Spectroscopy?

      Mossbauer Spectroscopy is a multipurpose technique that is applied in various scientific fields including Physics, Biology, and Metallurgy. It is most useful in deriving accurate data about the chemical, structural, and magnetic properties of a material. This technique exists today due to the discovery of the resonant absorption and recoil-less emission of nuclear y-rays, now

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