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    • Thermocouple

      Thermocouple

      A thermocouple is a temperature probe that uses two dissimilar metals join at two places. The voltage created when the metals are subjected to a temperature gradient is used to calculate the temperature. There are many different types of thermocouple, each designed for a specific temperature and sensitivity range. How Thermocouples Work The thermoelectric effect,

    • Zener Diode

      Zener Diode

      A Zener diode transfers current forward and backward, while traditional diodes are only capable of transferring current forward. Many different electronic systems use Zener diodes to control their circuit’s voltage levels. While there are several ways of doing this, Zener diodes provide efficient voltage regulation without damaging the diode itself. How Zener Diodes Work For

    • What is a Monostable Multivibrator?

      What is a Monostable Multivibrator?

      A multivibrator is a device that changes between two states and its own design or an external force powers it. For example, a weight that is placed on a suspended spring will extend the spring to its maximum length as gravity weighs down on it. When the spring is stretched to its maximum length, however,

    • What is a PID Controller?

      What is a PID Controller?

      A PID (Proportional Integral Derivative) controller is a device that makes changes to a system based on current and intended settings. PID controllers are used in a wide variety of industrial control systems and are the most commonly used feedback controllers in the world. PID controllers allow users to obtain and/or maintain preferred conditions within

    • Relay

      Relay

      A relay is a remote switch controlled by current, magnetism, or temperature. The relay was invented in 1835 by Joseph Henry (1979-1878), an American scientist. Relays are a common component in many devices, and there are many different types of relays. Relay Types The two main types of relay are electromechanical and solid-state. Electromechanical relays

    • Police Scanner Codes

      Police Scanner Codes

      A police scanner is basically a radio scanner that is also a receiver that receives wireless radio signals. A scanner identifies these wireless radio waves. A scanner can identify numerous radio signals and bands concurrently making it easy to keep track of many channels simultaneously. The phrase “police scanner” derives from the fact that the

    • Voltage Drop

      Voltage Drop

      Voltage is the measurement for the electrical force between two points that drives the current. More specifically, voltage is the measure of the energy per unit charge that is equal to the electrical potential difference between two measured points. Volts are normally measured by a voltmeter. Voltage drop is the reduction in voltage in an

    • What is a Photoresistor?

      What is a Photoresistor?

      A photoresistor is a light-dependent resistor which slowly loses its resistance when exposed to high levels of ultraviolet light. As a result, photoresistors convert light energy into electrical energy. Photoresistors are used in a wide variety of devices to detect the presence of light, control a device, or activate a system. They are usually dependent

    • Rectifier

      Rectifier

      A rectifier changes alternating current into direct current. This process is called rectification. The three main types of rectifier are the half-wave, full-wave, and bridge. A rectifier is the opposite of an inverter, which changes direct current into alternating current. Half-Wave Rectifier The simplest type is the half-wave rectifier, which can be made with just

    • Transformer

      Transformer

      A transformer transfers electrical energy between two circuits. It usually consists of two wire coils wrapped around a core. These coils are called primary and secondary windings. Energy is transferred by mutual induction caused by a changing electromagnetic field. If the coils have different number of turns around the core, the voltage induced in the

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