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    • Baseband

      Baseband

      Generally, a transmission signal contains more than a single frequency. This is to say that there might be several different frequencies linked together or else superimposed on each other. This is just the way all telecommunication systems function. For example, with today's communication technology it is virtually impossible to send low frequencies without experiencing any

    • The Piezoelectric Effect

      The Piezoelectric Effect

      Some materials have the ability to produce electricity when subjected to mechanical stress. This is called the piezoelectric effect. This stress can be caused by hitting or twisting the material just enough to deform its crystal lattice without fracturing it. The effect also works in the opposite way, with the material deforming slightly when a

    • Chebyshev Filter

      Chebyshev Filter

      A Chebyshev filter can either be analog or digital, and is an improvement on the Butterworth filter as it has a steeper roll-off and a greater passband and stopband ripple. These filters minimize overall error between actual and idealized filter characteristics for the designed range of the filter. The filter was named after Pafnuty Chebyshev,

    • QPSK (Quadrature Phase Shift Keying)

      QPSK (Quadrature Phase Shift Keying)

      QPSK (Quadrature Phase Shift Keying) is a phase modulation algorithm. Phase modulation is a frequency modulation version where the carrier wave’s phase is modulated to encode bits of digital information in each phase change. The “PSK” in QPSK refers to the use of Phased Shift Keying. Phased Shift Keying is a form of phase modulation

    • Satellite Systems

      Satellite Systems

      The basic types of satellite systems include geostationary (GEO), Low Earth Orbit (LEO), Medium Earth Orbit (MEO), and Highly Elliptical Orbit (HEO) satellites. There are also public and private satellite systems such as Television Receive Only (TVRO), Direct Broadcast Satellite (DBS), Global Positioning System (GPS), and multibeam satellite operations. Geosynchronous satellites orbit the Earth on

    • Spark Gap

      Spark Gap

      A spark gap consists of two electrodes separated by a small gap that is filled by a gas, usually air. The potential difference across the gap increases until it reaches the level where the gas ionizes and current flows across it for a brief time. The two types of spark gap are the static and

    • Ham Radio Software

      Ham Radio Software

      Ham Radio Software, also known as Amateur Radio Software, refers to computer programs designed exclusively for ham radio equipment. Once thought to be a means of communication between radio enthusiasts, ham radio now coexists with software including data and contest loggers, log books, Morse code tutors, and antenna design aids. In the 21st century there

    • C Band

      C Band

      C Band is the original frequency allocation for communications satellites. C-Band uses 3.7-4.2GHz for downlink and 5.925-6.425Ghz for uplink. The lower frequencies that C Band uses perform better under adverse weather conditions than the Ku band or Ka band frequencies. C Band Variants Slight C Band frequency variations are approved for use in various parts

    • Butterworth Filter

      Butterworth Filter

      A Butterworth filter is a signal processing filter that has an extremely flat frequency response in the passband. It is referred to as a maximally flat magnitude filter and is commonly used in both analog and digital audio crossover filters in home, commercial, and car stereo systems. Who Invented the Butterworth Filter? British engineer, Stephen

    • Voltage Drop

      Voltage Drop

      Voltage is the measurement for the electrical force between two points that drives the current. More specifically, voltage is the measure of the energy per unit charge that is equal to the electrical potential difference between two measured points. Volts are normally measured by a voltmeter. Voltage drop is the reduction in voltage in an

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