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    • How to Measure Signal Quality

      How to Measure Signal Quality

      Most people usually look to Signal to Noise Ratio to measure the signal quality of either audio or video communications. Signal to noise ratio is usually written either S/N or SNR. Most of the time the signal to noise ratio is measured in decibels. A decibel is a measure of power or loudness. Not to

    • HSS Speakers

      HSS Speakers

      Conceptually, hypersonic sound (HSS) systems do to sound what laser technology does to light – focus sound into a tight beam that can travel great distances without dispersing. HSS systems can create sound that is meant only for a certain individual(s), not for everyone who just happens to be in the vicinity. HSS Speakers versus

    • Noise Canceling Headphones

      Noise Canceling Headphones

      Noise-canceling headphones are headsets that have the ability not just to block out noise but to cancel it using the properties of sound waves. Sound waves have compression and rarefaction characteristics similar to the crests and troughs of a transverse wave. They also have amplitude and frequency characteristics. These characteristics of sound waves are used

    • Automatic Gain Control

      Automatic Gain Control

      Automatic gain control is a technique implemented in many consumer electronics that automatically adjusts the input levels of a system by inducing a portion of the output levels in the input terminals. Automatic gain control is used in a wide variety of technologies, including telecommunications, navigation, audio/video recordings, and radio systems. Automatic gain control can

    • HRTF (Head Related Transfer Function)

      HRTF (Head Related Transfer Function)

      HRTF (Head Related Transfer Functions) refers to a technique used in audio recordings in order to produce binaural signals from a monaural source. While monaural signals refer to sounds that a signal source produces and both ears hear them at varying distances and frequencies, binaural signals refer to sounds that two separate sources produce and that each ear

    • Half Duplex and Full Duplex

      Half Duplex and Full Duplex

      Duplex simply means that the communications device enables users to talk to someone in another location and the person in the other location to respond to the user via the same type of device. As an example, when someone makes a telephone call, he/she is engaging in a duplex procedure. The same is true when

    • How Wireless Speakers Works

      How Wireless Speakers Works

      The Need for Wireless Speakers A common complaint against home audio systems has been the cables that interconnect the speakers to the audio receiver, tuner, cd player, or stereo units. As more and more channels are added to modern home audio equipment the problem of connecting the speakers to the audio sources has exacerbated. Running

    • What is a Hydrophone?

      What is a Hydrophone?

      A hydrophone is a type of microphone that is specifically designed to be used under water. Hydrophones depend on piezoelectric transducers to detect sound waves and other pressure waves coming from underwater vehicles, animals, and natural structures. Hydrophones were widely used in World War I, and II to detect U-boats (German submarines) and are still

    • I2S (Inter-IC Sound)

      I2S (Inter-IC Sound)

      I2S is Inter-IC Sound. I2S is a serial bus used to transport digital audio. High-end CD and DVD players feature I2S outputs. I2S inputs are found on some PC sound cards. I2S Pinouts Pin Purpose 1 Word Clock (WCLK) 2 Bit Clock (BCLK) 3 DATA 4 Master Clock (MCLK) 5 DEM The pins on the

    • Digital Audio Cables

      Digital Audio Cables

      One of the significant developments with the widespread adoption of the personal computer for home, business, and school use is the digitalization of media and the subsequent mass adaptation by consumers and industry. While digital media is not a new concept, it has only recently made its way into the “normal” household and is commonly

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