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    • Enabling IP Routing

      Enabling IP Routing

      WAN connects different LANs with each other to communicate and to share data and resources. As a result, routers must be used on each network or at backbone to route the IP packets and IP routing should be enabled on the routers. Routers must learn the destinations that are not directly connected by building and

    • Understanding the Cisco Three-Layer Hierarchical Model

      Understanding the Cisco Three-Layer Hierarchical Model

      Understanding the Cisco Three-Layer Hierarchical Model Hierachical network design helps us to make networks more reliable and predictable. Level by level design help to understand networking factions easily like, we can use tools like access lists at specific level and can avoid them from others. Cisco layer model consist of the following three layers. The

    • Interior Gateway Routing Protocol

      Interior Gateway Routing Protocol

      The Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (IGRP) is a network routing protocol that is designed to enable routing inside of an Autonomous System (AS). Cisco developed this protocol in the late 1980s in response to the existing Routing Information Protocol’s (RIP) shortcomings. As Cisco routers became more popular, a number of large networks began using IGRP,

    • Distance Vector Routing Protocol

      Distance Vector Routing Protocol

      Routing Protocols Whenever different networks connect with each other to communicate and to share the data and resources, it is called internetworking. For internetworking, routers must be used on each network or at backbone to route the packets. To route a packet, a router needs to know: Destination Addresses Sources it can learn from Possible

    • Spanning Tree Protocol

      Spanning Tree Protocol

      Redundant Topology A Local Area Network may consist of more than one segment. Each segment of the LAN connected through a separate physical device mostly switch. Switches use their uplink ports to connect different segments. The LAN administrator can connect the switches with each other through more than one uplink port using redundant topology. Redundant

    • Ethernet Cabling

      Ethernet Cabling

      Ethernet is a media access method that is specified at the Data Link layer and uses specific Physical layer cabling and signalling techniques. It is important to be able to differentiate between the types of connectors that can be used to connect an Ethernet network together. I'll discuss the different unshielded twisted-pair cabling used today

    • The Cisco Three Layer Hierarchical Model vs the OSI Model

      The Cisco Three Layer Hierarchical Model vs the OSI Model

      The ISO, International Organization for Standardization is the Emily Post of the network protocol world. Just like Ms. Post, who wrote the book setting the standards or protocols for human social interaction, the ISO developed the OSI model as the precedent and guide for an open network protocol set. Defining the etiquette of communication models,

    • Understanding Ethernet Networking

      Understanding Ethernet Networking

      Ethernet refers to the family of Local Area Network implementation that was jointly developed by Digital Equipment Corporation, Intel Corporation and Xerox Corporation. It consists of certain specifications and standards as well as hardware devices and components. Ethernet Connection The Ethernet protocol provides for a verity of cabling options, one of which is a specification

    • Understanding the IPX-SPX Protocol

      Understanding the IPX-SPX Protocol

      IPX/SPX is a protocol suite that is implemented on many corporate internetworks. IPX/SPX was developed to operate in Novell Netware in LAN environment. But today, the IPX/SPX is also used in Microsoft NT, Microsoft XP and Lotus Notes environment along with Vista. IPX/SPX on Cisco IOS The Cisco IOS also provides a wide range of

    • Understanding Data Encapsulation

      Understanding Data Encapsulation

      The sending and receiving of data from a source device to the destination device is possible with the help of networking protocols when data encapsulation is used. The data is encapsulated with protocol information at each OSI reference model layer when a host transmits data to another device across a network. Each layer communicates with

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