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    • Cryptographic Libraries

      Cryptographic Libraries

      Cryptology has quickly grown from a field only used by government and military agencies to being one that impacts the day to day lives of consumers across the globe. Cryptographic libraries are used by individuals in just about any country in the world when conducting secure online transactions, communicating via secure email or video, and

    • Cryptology


      The field of cryptology includes both the study of and practice of securing information in the presence of untrusted third parties or adversaries. Specifically, it is focused on creating and analyzing the protocols used to subvert attempts by adversaries to gain access to or interrupt the flow of information between trusted parties. Specific focus areas

    • Substitution and Transposition Ciphers

      Substitution and Transposition Ciphers

      Substitution and transposition ciphers are two categories of ciphers used in classical cryptography. Substitution and transposition differ in how chunks of the message are handled by the encryption process. Substitution ciphers Substitution ciphers encrypt plaintext by changing the plaintext one piece at a time. The Caesar Cipher was an early substitution cipher. In the Caesar

    • What is TrueCrypt?

      What is TrueCrypt?

      TrueCrypt is a free, open source disk encryption software that is available for the Windows XP, Windows Vista, Windows 7, Mac, Linux, and Unix operating systems. TrueCrypt provides users with real time encryption/decryption, parallelization and pipelining to read/write to partitions as fast as non-encrypted partitions, and plausible deniability through hidden volumes and hidden operating systems

    • Symmetric and Asymmetric ciphers

      Symmetric and Asymmetric ciphers

      In a symmetric cipher, both parties must use the same key for encryption and decryption. This means that the encryption key must be shared between the two parties before any messages can be decrypted. Symmetric systems are also known as shared secret systems or private key systems. Symmetric ciphers are significantly faster than asymmetric ciphers,

    • Brute Force Attack

      Brute Force Attack

      A brute force attack consists of trying every possible code, combination, or password until the right one is found. Determining the Difficulty of a Brute Force Attack The difficulty of a brute force attack depends on several factors, such as: How long can the key be? How many possible values can each key component have?

    • Kerberos


      Kerberos is a network authentication protocol which utilizes symmetric cryptography to provide authentication for client-server applications. Kerberos Standard Definition Kerberos is defined in RFC 1510 – The Kerberos Network Authentication Service (V5). Kerberos Architecture The core of  Kerberos architecture is the KDC (Key Distribution Server). The KDC stores authentication information and uses it to securely

    • Plaintext and Ciphertext

      Plaintext and Ciphertext

      In the study of cryptography the terms plaintext and ciphertext are used to describe the plain language message or information and the resulting encrypted message or data that results from the use of a cipher or encryption algorithm. The resulting ciphertext is not readable by either a human or computer without the correct cipher to

    • How MS Access Encryption Works

      How MS Access Encryption Works

      Microsoft Access had no encryption capability until the release of Microsoft Access 2007. With the MS Access 2007 release, encryption is now available. Encryption Requirements To encrypt your access database you must use a new database format released with MS Access 2007, the ACCDB format. Differences between the original MDB format and the new ACCDB

    • Dictionary Attacks

      Dictionary Attacks

      A dictionary attack consists of trying “every word in the dictionary” as a possible password for an encrypted message. A dictionary attack is generally more efficient than a brute force attack because users typically choose poor passwords. Dictionary attacks are generally far less successful against systems that use passphrases instead of passwords. Improving Dictionary Attacks

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