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    • One-Time Pad

      One-Time Pad

      A one-time pad is a form of encryption that is difficult to decipher or crack if one is not the intended recipient. If done correctly, the strength of encryption of plaintext can almost be impossible to break in a useful timeframe. The system takes each character from plaintext and uses modular addition with a character

    • Cryptographic Algorithms

      Cryptographic Algorithms

      Symmetric Cryptographic Algorithms DES (Data Encryption Standard) is perhaps the most widely used cryptographic algorithm. DES is based upon IBM’s Lucifer algorithm. The NBS (National Bureau of Standards) and the NSA (National Security Agency) adopted DES as a federal standard in 1977. DES is a symmetric cipher with an effective key length of 56 bits.

    • Brute Force Attack

      Brute Force Attack

      A brute force attack consists of trying every possible code, combination, or password until the right one is found. Determining the Difficulty of a Brute Force Attack The difficulty of a brute force attack depends on several factors, such as: How long can the key be? How many possible values can each key component have?

    • GnuPG Shell

      GnuPG Shell

      Everyone likes safety. The safety of confidential information is always of special concern. Therefore, information protection is a necessity and can be useful to companies and individuals who care about their intellectual property’s confidentiality. People who want their e-mails kept confidential and their e-mail attachments readable only to the intended recipient can appreciate information protection.

    • Kerberos


      Kerberos is a network authentication protocol which utilizes symmetric cryptography to provide authentication for client-server applications. Kerberos Standard Definition Kerberos is defined in RFC 1510 – The Kerberos Network Authentication Service (V5). Kerberos Architecture The core of  Kerberos architecture is the KDC (Key Distribution Server). The KDC stores authentication information and uses it to securely

    • Steganography

      Steganography has gained a significant amount of press over the past several years when the technique hit the press as a possible method that many of the terrorists involved with the 9/11 attacks used to plan the operation. Similar to the use of encryption, steganography techniques have become one of the basic methods that organizations

    • Chosen Plaintext Attack

      Chosen Plaintext Attack

      A chosen plaintext attack is an attack where the cryptanalyst is able to define his own plaintext, feed it into the cipher, and analyze the resulting ciphertext. Mounting a chosen plaintext attack requires the cryptanalyst to be able to send data of his choice into the device which is doing the encryption, and it requires

    • How MS Access Encryption Works

      How MS Access Encryption Works

      Microsoft Access had no encryption capability until the release of Microsoft Access 2007. With the MS Access 2007 release, encryption is now available. Encryption Requirements To encrypt your access database you must use a new database format released with MS Access 2007, the ACCDB format. Differences between the original MDB format and the new ACCDB

    • AES (Rijndael)

      AES (Rijndael)

      AES (Advanced Encryption Standard) is the currently employed specification for encrypting electronic data by the United States National Institute of Standards and Technology, or NIST. AES was selected as the U.S. standard for encryption of unclassified information in 2001 supplanting DES which had been the U.S. standards for a number of years (since 1977). AES

    • MD5 (Message Digest 5)

      MD5 (Message Digest 5)

      MD5 is a message digest algorithm. MD5 takes a variable length input and produces a 128-bit message digest. MD5 was designed by Ron Rivest in 1991. MD5 is officially defined in RFC 1321 – The MD5 Message-Digest Algorithm. MD5 Usage MD5 is used in many applications, including GPG, Kerberos, TLS / SSL, Cisco type 5

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