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    • Dictionary Attacks

      Dictionary Attacks

      A dictionary attack consists of trying “every word in the dictionary” as a possible password for an encrypted message. A dictionary attack is generally more efficient than a brute force attack because users typically choose poor passwords. Dictionary attacks are generally far less successful against systems that use passphrases instead of passwords. Improving Dictionary Attacks

    • Diffie-Hellman


      The Diffie-Hellman key exchange was first published by Whitfield Diffie and Martin Hellman in 1976 and is a popular method for exchanging cryptographic keys. The method is one of the most straight-forward examples of key exchanges implemented in the cryptology field and allows two individuals or parties that have not worked together before to establish

    • Digital Certificates

      Digital Certificates

      Digital certificates are the equivalent of a driver’s license, a marriage license, or any other form of identity. The only difference is that a digital certificate is used in conjunction with a public key encryption system. Digital certificates are electronic files that simply work as an online passport. Digital certificates are issued by a third

    • Cryptographic Libraries

      Cryptographic Libraries

      Cryptology has quickly grown from a field only used by government and military agencies to being one that impacts the day to day lives of consumers across the globe. Cryptographic libraries are used by individuals in just about any country in the world when conducting secure online transactions, communicating via secure email or video, and

    • Known Ciphertext Attack

      Known Ciphertext Attack

      The known ciphertext attack, or ciphertext only attack (COA) is an attack method used in cryptanalysis when the attacker has access to a given set of ciphertext(s). The attacker does not have access to corresponding cleartext in this method; however, COA is successful when correspdonding plaintext can be determined from a given set of ciphertext.

    • DES (Data Encryption Standard)

      DES (Data Encryption Standard)

      DES (Data Encryption Standard) is a commonly used method for encrypting data using a secret or private key. The strength of the DES encryption standard was previously considered to be strong enough that the United States government placed restrictions on the export of the technology to other countries. Conceptually, there are more than 72 quadrillion

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