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    • MIC (Message Integrity Check)

      MIC (Message Integrity Check)

      A message integrity check (MIC), is a security improvement for WEP encryption found on wireless networks. The check helps network administrators avoid attacks that focus on using the bit-flip technique on encrypted network data packets. Unlike the older ICV (Integrity Check Value) method, MIC is able to protect both the data payload and header of

    • VRRP (Virtual Router Redundancy Protocol)

      VRRP (Virtual Router Redundancy Protocol)

      VRRP stands for Virtual Router Redundancy Protocol. The VRRP is a commonly used method to avoid network outages during important data transfers. Data transfer can be highly susceptible to failure when sent by a single router network. To combat this problem, VRRP creates a virtual connection between routers within the same network and ties them

    • CCMP (Counter Mode with Cipher Block Chaining Message Authentication Code Protocol)

      CCMP (Counter Mode with Cipher Block Chaining Message Authentication Code Protocol)

      CCMP (Counter Mode with Cipher Block Chaining Message Authentication Code Protocol) is the preferred encryption protocol in the 802.11i standard. CCMP Cryptography CCMP is based upon the CCM mode of the AES encryption algorithm. CCMP utilizes 128-bit keys, with a 48-bit initialization vector (IV) for replay detection. The Components of CCMP The Counter Mode (CM)

    • VoIP Codecs

      VoIP Codecs

      A codec (Coder/Decoder) converts analog signals to a digital bitstream, and another identical codec at the far end of the communication converts the digital bitstream back into an analog signal. In the VoIP world, codecs are used to encode voice for transmission across IP networks. Codecs for VoIP use are also referred to as vocoders,

    • Wi-Fi (802.11)

      Wi-Fi (802.11)

      WiFi 802.11 describes a number of radio frequencies that can be used for wireless Internet access. WiFi 802.11 is specifically designed and maintained for the use of wireless Internet and can be found in most residences and commercial buildings in the United States and abroad. WiFi 802.11, which is also known as IEEE 802.11, consists

    • DSL Splitter

      DSL Splitter

      A DSL splitter, like a DSL filter, is a device used to prevent interference problems. It filters the low frequencies of the telephone line from the high-frequency ADSL line. However, the installation of a DSL splitter requires the help of a technician to split the main telephone cable into 2 lines unlike a DSL filter

    • Routing


      Routing is the process of moving packets through an internetwork, such as the Internet. Routing actually consists of two separate, but related, tasks: Defining paths for the transmission of packets through an internetwork. Forwarding packets based upon the defined paths. Routing takes place in IP networks, based on IP routing tables and its entries. The

    • DSL (Digital Subscriber Line)

      DSL (Digital Subscriber Line)

      Digital Subscriber Line or Digital Subscriber Loop (DSL) is a type of high-speed Internet technology that enables transmission of digital data via the wires of a telephone network. DSL does not interfere with the telephone line; the same line can be used for both Internet and regular telephone services. The download speed of DSL ranges

    • DHCP Reservation

      DHCP Reservation

      A DHCP reservation is a permanent IP address assignment. It is a specific IP address within a DHCP scope that is permanently reserved for leased use to a specific DHCP client. Users can configure a DHCP reservation in their DHCP server when they need to reserve a permanent IP address assignment. Reservations are used for

    • Subnetting


      Subnetting is the process of breaking down an IP network into smaller sub-networks called “subnets.” Each subnet is a non-physical description (or ID) for a physical sub-network (usually a switched network of host containing a single router in a multi-router network). In many cases, subnets are created to serve as physical or geographical separations similar

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