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    • CCMP (Counter Mode with Cipher Block Chaining Message Authentication Code Protocol)

      CCMP (Counter Mode with Cipher Block Chaining Message Authentication Code Protocol)

      CCMP (Counter Mode with Cipher Block Chaining Message Authentication Code Protocol) is the preferred encryption protocol in the 802.11i standard. CCMP Cryptography CCMP is based upon the CCM mode of the AES encryption algorithm. CCMP utilizes 128-bit keys, with a 48-bit initialization vector (IV) for replay detection. The Components of CCMP The Counter Mode (CM)

    • ST Connectors

      ST Connectors

      The ST (Straight Tip) connector is a fiber optic connector which uses a plug and socket which is locked in place with a half-twist bayonet lock. The ST connector was the first defactor standard for fiber optic cabling. It was first developed by AT&T. ST connectors were leading connectors in the late 80s and early

    • Understanding Cisco IOS

      Understanding Cisco IOS

      Cisco IOS As you know that Cisco is the worldwide leader in providing the hardware solutions as well as the software solutions of LAN and WAN. The hardware solutions mean that the hardware devices such as switches and routers etc but what is the meaning of software solution? The software solution actually means that Cisco

    • File Sharing

      File Sharing

      A common practice in modern society is the use of file sharing programs and applications. These file sharing programs have been shrouded in controversy, scrutiny, and criticism since their inceptions. Despite that, however, file sharing programs are used by millions of people worldwide on a daily basis and that number is only growing. This article

    • Ethernet Cable

      Ethernet Cable

      This Ethernet cable can be used to connect a network interface card (NIC) to an Ethernet switch or hub. They transmit data using the Ethernet protocol. Ethernet cables have RJ-45 jacks on both ends, each with 8 pins (They look similar to telephone jacks, which use 4 pins or 6 pins). Equipment using an Ethernet

    • Wi-Fi (802.11)

      Wi-Fi (802.11)

      WiFi 802.11 describes a number of radio frequencies that can be used for wireless Internet access. WiFi 802.11 is specifically designed and maintained for the use of wireless Internet and can be found in most residences and commercial buildings in the United States and abroad. WiFi 802.11, which is also known as IEEE 802.11, consists

    • RG-8

      RG-8

      RG-8 is a 50-ohm coaxial cable that is used for radio transmission (for instance in amateur radio or CB). Recently, they have become an integral part of computer networks, as they can increase connectivity. One of the first things that someone will notice about RG-8 cables is that they are huge when compared to other

    • IPsec

      IPsec

      IPSec (IP Security) is a suite of protocols which was designed by Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) to protect data by signing and encrypting data before it is transmitted over public networks. The IETF Request for Comments (RFCs) 2401-2409 defines the IPSec protocols with regard to security protocols, security associations and key management, and authentication

    • Default Passwords for Belkin Routers

      Default Passwords for Belkin Routers

      By default, all Belkin routers’ default username and password is admin (username) while “blank” (leave it blank) for the password. You need to properly connect the router to your modem and PC before you can access the router using a web browser (IE, Firefox, Chrome, etc.).  To access the router’s GUI, all you need to

    • What is Intersymbol Interference?

      What is Intersymbol Interference?

      Intersymbol interference is a signal distortion in telecommunication. One or more symbols can interfere with other symbols causing noise or a less reliable signal. The main causes of intersymbol interference are multipath propagation or non-linear frequency in channels. This has the effect of a blur or mixture of symbols, which can reduce signal clarity. If

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