What does ISO Stand For?

The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) is a non-government worldwide association that sets industrial and commercial standards. ISO was found in 1947, and its head office is in Geneva, Switzerland. It is the largest standards development organization in the world today. ISO was formed as a result of the union of two organizations: the ISA (International Federation of the National Standardizing Associations) and the UNSCC (United Nations Standards Coordinating Committee). Later on, representatives from many countries came together to form a new organization called ISO.

International Standards

ISO has in print more than 17500 international standards. Additionally, ISO publishes technical reports, technical specifications, technical corrigenda and guides. These standards and guides cover a wide range of industries and areas from the designation of direction of twist in yarns to standards for C programming language. The format for international standards is ISO[/IEC][/ASTM] [IS] nnnnn[:yyyy] Title; nnnn is the number of the standard, yyyy is the year of publication, Title depicts the subject matter or area of application of the standard, and International Electrotechnical Commission is denoted by IEC which is included if the standard is a result of the work done by the ISO/IEC Joint Technical Committee. ASTM is used for standards developed in collaboration with ASTM (American Society for Testing and Materials) International.What does ISO Stand For?

For a document to be approved and published as a ISO international standard, it must be endorsed by no less than two-thirds of the ISO national members who have engaged in its development, and also not be rejected by more than a quarter of all ISO members who vote on the document. Click here to view the complete Catalogue of ISO standards.

ISO members

ISO presently has 162 countries associated with it as members. There are three types of ISO membership:

  • Member bodies – national standard bodies that represent each country and they are the only members in ISO that have voting privileges.
  • Correspondent members- countries that do not have their own standards body. They do not participate in the development and distribution of standards; but they are aware of them.
  • Subscriber members – countries with small or limited economies. They pay much lesser membership fees than other members; but they are privy to the development of standards.

How Optical Ultrasonic Cleaners Work

Optical Ultrasonic Cleaners (sometimes referred to as Supersonic Cleaners) are electronic devices that use the power of ultrasound to clean items that are fragile or delicate. Ultrasound is sound waves that usually measure from 15-400 kHz. These sound frequencies have specific attributes that are beneficial in removing dirt and other forms of residue from a variety of materials. While most ultrasonic cleaners are used to clean a variety of items including, jewelry, surgical materials, clock parts and small electrical components, many ultrasonic cleaners are specifically created to clean optical items such as contact lenses, eye glasses and professional optical components.

For the most part, optical ultrasonic cleaners are relatively small devices that are about the size of a computer mouse, other devices specifically made for cleaning jewelry or small optical components are usually bigger- about the size of a toaster. Every optical ultrasonic cleaner has a chamber in which ultrasonic conducting fluid is placed. It should be noted that for optical ultrasonic cleaners specifically made for cleaning contact lenses, normal contact lens solution can be used. If you are using an optical ultrasonic cleaner to clean optical components or eye glasses, besides using contact lens solution, you can also use a liquid organic solvent or specialized optical ultrasonic cleaning solution.

Once you place the item which you wish to clean in the optical ultrasonic cleaner chamber, you can close the top of the cleaner; set the time and cleaning settings and begin the cleaning process. While some optical ultrasonic cleaners have preset frequencies in which they operate at, professional and industrial optical ultrasonic cleaners can easily be changed along with the sound wave frequency and time limit.

Within the device is a transducer that creates ultrasound waves in the fluid. These waves are created and then collapse in very short periods of time, creating tiny bubbles. The bubbles along with the cleaning solution help break off dirt and residue and remove it from the item being cleaned. It should be noted that the frequency of the sound waves plays an important part in how well an item is cleansed. For instance, an extremely high sound wave of 400 kHz creates extremely small bubbles that can reach inside tiny crevices on the item and remove dirt and residue. In many instances, extremely high temperatures and high amounts of pressure are created, however since the bubbles are microscopic, their effects are limited.

Optical ultrasonic cleaners are one of the most efficient and effective ways to clean ordinary or specialized optical components. While each machine can vary, many contact lens optical ultrasonic cleaners only require about a 2 minute cycle for a thorough cleaning. Optical ultrasonic cleaners are one of the best ways to clean contact lenses and are perfect for those that would like to bypass using harsher chemicals to clean their lenses. These types of cleaners are also affordable. For contact lens cleaners, expect to pay $20 to $50, however for professional or industrial use optical ultrasonic cleaners, prices can be more than $1,000.

Interactive Whiteboard

An interactive whiteboard is a digital device capable of interacting with a computer and projecting images in a screen. This device is used for visual presentation in classrooms, workgroups and business meetings. An interactive whiteboard needs to be connected to a computer which generates the actual images or data which are then projected to the board. Most interactive whiteboards have keyboard and mouse functionalities, but some models are capable of whiteboarding functions like character recognition so notes can be written or recorded on the physical board itself.

How it Works

The interactive whiteboard can be connected to a computer through wires (i.e. USB cable) or through Bluetooth and infrared. A device driver also needs to be loaded unto the computer before the activating the device for the first time. After this, the interactive whiteboard activates automatically upon computer boot.

A positional system such as infrared or a tactile surface is then used to determine and store the images or characters written on the interactive board. Interactive whiteboards with this two way function use optical, laser, ultra-sonic, analog resistive, infrared or electromagnetic systems.

Different Types of Interactive Whiteboards

  • Optical Interactive Whiteboards use an infrared light and a triangulation algorithm to determine the location of a marker on the board. With this system, any kind of material can be used on the whiteboard surface.
  • Laser-Based Interactive Whiteboards are like Infrared optical whiteboards as they use triangulation to determine the location of the marker. However, laser based systems make use of moving lasers located at the edges to perform the triangulation. Thus, markers must have reflective surfaces.
  • Ultrasonic-Based interactive Whiteboards use ultrasonic sound to triangulate the marker’s position. Ultrasonic sound is emitted by the stylus whenever it is pressed against the board’s surface. Microphones located at different positions along the board pick up the sound and triangulate the position.
  • Analog Resistive Interactive Whiteboards utilize have two sets of resistive materials on their surface. These two surfaces generate electricity upon contact so the position of the stylus can be determined. Any type of marker can be used for this type of interactive whiteboard.
  • Electromagnetic Interactive Whiteboards are one of the most popular types of interactive whiteboard systems. A special marker with a coil is used for writing and the board has an array of wires that generate electrical signals. The marker may also be passive and thus the x and y positions are determined by the changes in the electrical field caused by the coil. This system makes it possible for one to rest his or her wrist or hand upon the whiteboard without creating a false signal.

Some interactive whiteboards can work with programs. On these types of whiteboards, annotations, keyboard and mouse emulation, mouse-overs, pop-ups, and other functions can be used. Some markers also have a button that functions as mouse button so clicking and dragging items on the active screen are possible. Of course, like regular whiteboards, interactive whiteboards can also be damaged by permanent markers and normal wear and tear.


Telemetry is a highly automated communications technique with the help of which measurements and data collection are done at remote locations and transmitted for monitoring. This technique commonly uses wireless transmission, though original systems used wired transmission. The most important uses of telemetry include weather-data collection, monitoring power generation plants and keeping track of manned and unmanned space flights.

How It Works

A telemetering system typically consists of a transducer as an input device, a transmission medium in the form of wired lines or radio waves, signal processing devices, and devices for recording or displaying data. The transducer converts a physical quantity such as temperature, pressure or vibration into a corresponding electrical signal, which is then transmitted over a distance for the purpose of measurement and recording.

Development of telemetry applications

The original systems of telemetry that were introduced in the beginning of the 20th Century used to be supervisory in nature, since they would be used to monitor the distribution of electric power. In the earliest system that was introduced in Chicago in 1912, a central monitoring center would use telephone lines to receive operational data from far-flung power plants. Other fields began to implement such systems, with improvements being made over the decades that followed.

The use of aerospace telemetry dates back to the 1930s, when balloon-borne equipment would be used to gather data about the prevailing atmospheric conditions. This form of telemetry was extended for use in observatory satellites in the 1950s. Satellites put to use the telemetry principle for several applications that include recording weather conditions, observing space phenomena and remote sensing. Such satellites have increased in their complexity since, and there are several hundred of them that orbit the Earth today.

Telemetry applications in the fields of scientific research are constantly being developed today. One such area is biomedicine, in which crucial data about the internal organs of a patient is transmitted by devices that are surgically implanted inside that body. Another exciting field is that of oceanography, which involves remotely gathering data related to aspects under the sea such as the chemical composition of undersea rocks or their seismic behavior.

How Self Inking Stamps Work

A rubber stamp is a ubiquitous item. Almost every office has one. They are the perfect tools for administering to forms, making a signature for a check and helping to advertise your company. While the regular stamp and ink pad has been around it seems forever, the newer self inking stamp is definitely a practical innovation.

Besides a date stamp, most stamps are static, the text or image never changes and combining the two components of the stamp and the ink has made for an effective and efficient product. Self inking stamps aren’t magic; however they do tend to pique the curiosity of those that are interested in how things work. For the self inking stamp, the way it works is really simple.

Self inking stamps have three components, the actual stamp, the stamp pad and the frame that houses both. Usually made from plastic, the self inking stamp is only a couple of inches in height by an inch or two wide. The stamp text or graphics are usually viewed from a sticker that is attached to the top where one holds it. In order for a self inking stamp to work, a specific motion must be used to manually, but seamlessly place ink from the inkpad onto the stamp.

When using a self inking stamp there is one single motion that must be completed. Holding the stamp handle, place the bottom portion of the stamp on the paper where you would like to have stamped (there are usually plastic guides to help), now simply press down, the handle will be able to depress about an inch or so. In this movement, you are actually causing the stamp to be inked by the pad, then as you continue the action, the stamp and pad rotate away from each other and the stamp is put on a trajectory directly towards the paper. As pressure continues to be applied the stamp now wet with ink presses against the paper leaving its mark.

Runtime Error

A runtime error is a computer error that appears in the form of a message box consisting of a particular code along with its corresponding definitions. Usually, a user will notice that the computer becomes noticeably slow before a runtime error appears.

After the runtime error message has been displayed and closed, the software that shows this error normally closes or freezes. In some cases, the operating system reboots.

A wide variety of errors cause these problems. These include:

  • conflicts between the TSR (Terminate and Stay Resident Program)
  • currently running applications
  • software issues
  • memory problems
  • harmful applications such as computer viruses

The procedures necessary to correct this type of error differs from one case to another. If a TSR caused the runtime error being experienced, simply use the “end task” function of the Task Manager.

Runtime Error

If a persistent runtime error is encountered as a result, the software that displays the error message has certain issues and problems. Resolve this problem by visiting the software developer’s website and downloading and installing all the updates and patches needed for the smooth running of the software. However, if all updates and patches are already installed and the runtime error message still appears, uninstall and reinstall the program.

Memory issues usually cause another type of runtime error. In this case, it is a good idea to first contact the developer of the application that caused the error message. More often than not, they can provide a possible set of solutions. But if their solutions cannot resolve the issues, contact the manufacturer of your computer or motherboard and ask for a technician or someone from the company who can assess the hardware.

Harmful programs such as viruses and other malicious processes cause another type of runtime error. These harmful programs are capable of altering the computer’s settings, thereby generating runtime errors. In order to prevent these runtime errors, frequently update the software security application. If the PC does not have a good software security program, install one and scan the computer for possible threats to the system’s stability and the private data’s security.

How to Open an NRG File

An NRG file is a type of CD file format that the CD/DVD burning software, Nero Burning Rom created. NRG files burn ISO images to CDs in order to create bootable discs. Like ISO files, NRG files maintain a specific file structure and can contain large archives of data in a single file. While NRG files are rather popular, due to the popularity of Nero itself, there are only a few programs that are able to read, access, and create NRG files.


How NRG Files Work

An NRG file is made up of chunks of data similar to IFF (Interchange File Format) files. These chunks of data represent basic file contents as well as folder and file hierarchy. At the end of each NRG file, a small section of information, no more than 8 to 12 bytes in size, tells the computer where each chunk ends and the next begins. By reading this part of the NRG file first and then translating the data chunks into usable information, the NRG reader can open and access the NRG file.


How to Open an NRG File

In order to open an NRG file, the user must have Nero Burning Rom or an equivalent software installed on the computer. While there are only a few programs, aside from Nero Burning Rom, that are able to access NRG files, any of them would be sufficient at opening one. For the most part, programs that access and/or create ISO files are also equipped to handle NRG files. For example, MagicISO, Power ISO, Alcohol 120%, and Daemon Tools are all able to open and create NRG files and mount them on a virtual drive. Additionally, MagicISO, Power ISO, and NRG2ISO all convert NRG files to ISO files or another file format.


How to Create an NRG File

In order to create an NRG file, the user must have a software that is specifically designed for burning bootable CDs and DVDs. For example, Nero Burning Rom, MagicISO, and Power ISO all create NRG files from scratch by allowing the user to browse for files from his/her computer. Once the user creates an NRG file, he/she will also be able to burn it to a CD or DVD with the assistance of a disc burner and a blank disc.

What Are Computers Used For?

Computers can provide a wide range of functions which make computers useful for everyday situations. They can be loaded with software of various types to perform these functions for everyday use as well. They can be useful for work or recreation and make interesting experimental mediums.

Use of Computers for Research

Research for various endeavors can be done with a computer. Having access to the Internet can offer numerous and unlimited possibilities for research. Software titles can also contain volumes of information on a single media disc. Computers can also be used to keep track of research that is being done. When research is complete, processing the data that has been collected in several ways is possible.

The following are research related uses of Computers:

Gathering Data – Information located on the Internet or discovered through personal trials can be gathered, sorted and prepared with Computers. Processing of said data can be done with the computer as well.

Creating Graphs – Graphs are visual representations of collected data and can span several variables. Graphs can be useful in research projects and can be used in several applications.What are Computers Used For

Writing Papers – Research papers written by students, scientists or any other individual can be done on computers. Word processing software options help to reduce errors when writing research papers.

Working with Computers

Many uses for computers are possible for work applications. Several people use computers in an office to process their work assignments. Others own their own business and keep track of sales, make their orders online and do other business related actions with their computers.

The following are work related uses of computers:

Dealing Business – The capabilities of computers to place orders online or make arrangements or deals is simple and easy to process.

Creating Spreadsheets – Spreadsheets are very useful in processing numerical data as well as other forms of data which must be neatly arranged and managed.

Formatting Data – Processing the collected data into assorted formats which are useable in the line of work that the computer is used for.

Managing Employees – Many companies use computer networks which log the attendance of workers in a work day. It can also be used to add or remove employees when needed.

Design Capabilities of Computers

Computers are excellent design tools which can be used in a number of professions. One of the most prevalent fields is construction which could use blueprinting software to design a building to the exact specifications needed. Other design properties of computers offer increased capabilities for painting and drawing in the artistic world. There is no longer a need to waste materials as mistakes can easily be retracted and improved upon instantly.

Recreational Gaming with Computers

Video games have always been a big thing with computers. The first video games were computers in their own limelight. The video game software is always improving and more and more games are released each year. Graphics processing power of these games are getting so realistic now that it is very hard to distinguish the imaginary game worlds from the real world. Methods of playing are also expanding.

Networking with Computers

Computers are very easy to network together and are very useful in office settings. Networking allows for easy transfer of files and work related information between computers and allows the network to access shared files.  This can cut down on the time that it takes to process data and removes excessive steps such as printing out information or copying to external media.

Experimenting with Computers

Now real tests are not needed as often as computer models of situations can be so accurately created with software. This has proven important in the design process of vehicles and countless products that are used every day. An alternate experimentation medium is the computer itself. They can be upgraded several times before they become obsolete. It is important to test their limits.

Setup Google Apps with your Bluehost Account

If you have a business website set up at Bluehost, then you can easily link the same to Google Apps (Free) to create business email addresses like yourname@businessname.com and use other collaborative/productivity tools offered by Google.

Creating a business email address definitely gives your clientele and stakeholders a more professional and authentic experience.

Follow the below steps carefully to link your website hosted at Bluehost with Google Apps (Free).

At Bluehost

Step 1: Log into your Bluehost cPanel. Under the Domains section, select DNS Zone Editor. Select the domain on which you’d like to setup Google Apps.

Step 2: Under Zone File Records > A (Host), you will see a host record named mail. Delete it.

Step 3: Under Zone File Records > MX (Mail Exchanger), delete all existing entries.

Step 4: Now, add the following entries from the Add DNS Record section.

Host Record TTL Type Points To Priority
mail 14400 CNAME ghs.google.com -
@ 14400 MX aspmx.l.google.com 1
@ 14400 MX alt1.aspmx.l.google.com 5
@ 14400 MX alt2.aspmx.l.google.com 5
@ 14400 MX aspmx2.googlemail.com 10
@ 14400 MX aspmx3.googlemail.com 10

The changes should look like this:


Note: Changes in these records may take up to 48 hours or more to propagate throughout the Internet.

That’s it at the Bluehost side.

At Google Apps

Step 1: Go to Google Apps (Free) signup page. You will be asked to enter a domain name that you’d like to use with Google Apps. Enter the domain (e.g. businessname.com – do not include www) and click Submit.

Step 2: Next you will be asked to create a credential. Enter the username and password. Remember, this credential will have administrative rights at Google Apps, and hence should be noted immediately.

Note: Since, this will be an email with administrative rights, I recommend creating it as admin@businessname.com to have a centralized administrative control.

Step 3: Fill out the information about your business/organization. The alternate email address is very important. It will be used for communication and account recovery. Click I accept! Create my account to proceed.

You will receive a confirmation email at the alternate email address you had provided during the signup.

Step 4: Choose Go Express to easily configure the account. Go Custom is intended for big businesses or who are already using some other email software at the moment. The configuration wizard is quite self explanatory.

Step 5: Verify domain ownership is the very first step during configuration. The Upload an HTML file to your server method is used for domain verification. That is, download the specified HTML file and upload it to the base folder of your website. Click Verify.


Step 6: In the Users and Group section, you can create groups or add more users. The free version allows maximum of 10 users.

Step 7: In the Set up Gmail, choose Google servers (recommended) only.

Step 8: In the Did you change your MX records? screen, select Yes.

Go through rest of the wizard, which shows not-so-important and informative sections, by clicking Next.

Step 9: Go to Settings > Email. Under Web address, click Change URL. Enable the custom URL and enter mail in the provided text box. Click Continue. Click I’ve completed these steps (as we have already set up Bluehost).

Doing this will give you a URL like http://mail.businessname.com, from where you can log in and is easier to remember too.


You can now access http://mail.businessname.com to access your business email addresses. But do give it at least 48 hours for the MX Entries to update across the Internet.

A new user can be added from Organization & Users > Create a new user.

I hope creating business email addresses will give your business more credibility and authenticity.

If you faced any trouble while connecting Bluehost with Google Apps, please mention the same in the comments below.

How to Reset an Epson Printer Cartridge

One of the biggest costs associated with owning an Epson printer is paying for new printer cartridges. The Epson Company follows the printer industry practice of selling the devices at a low price as a loss leader, and then make profit off of selling new ink cartridges. To combat the practice of consumers refilling cartridges on their own, Epson has manufactured the majority of their inkjet cartridges with “smart chips” since 2000. These chips transmit a signal to the printer when empty. They will also “remember” that the printer cartridge is empty when it has been refilled forcing the consumer to learn how to reset an Epson printer cartridge to use the newly filled cartridge.

How Do You Reset an Epson Printer Cartridge?

Depending on the model and type of Epson Printer cartridge, there are three methods commonly used to reset the cartridge smart chips:

1 – Using an Epson Printer cartridge reset tool.

2 – Using software reset tools.How to Reset an Epson Printer Cartridge

3 – Buying non-OEM refillable printer cartridges.

Using the Epson Printer Cartridge Reset Tool

The Epson chip reset tool is not only used to allow consumers to refill cartridges, but can also  permit cartridges to be used until truly empty. They devices work by overriding the Epson installed chip and allow the printer to function using cartridges that have been refilled or still have ink remaining when the chip indicates they are empty. When searching for a suitable reset tool, shoppers will find there are both generic and printer model specific options available in the market. The SK168, YXD268, and Epson 4 chip resetters are two commonly purchased models that support a large range of Epson printers/cartridges.

Steps to Reset an Epson Printer Cartridge (Chip Reset Tool)

Step 1 – Remove the print cartridge from the printer.

Step 2 – Line the cartridge up with the marks at the base of the reset tool.

Step 3 – Press the reset tool pins firmly against the chip contacts on the cartridge for several seconds. A blinking red light will indicate that there is solid contact between the cartridge and the device.

Step 4 – Keep the tool pressed against the cartridge until the green LED on the tool illuminates and begins to blink. This will indicate that the cartridge has been reset.

Problems with Epson Printer Cartridge Chip Resetting

When the printer cartridge is pressed against the chip resetter and no LED illuminates, the physical contact between the device and cartridge was not satisfactory. If repeating the procedure results in no light turning on, then the reset tool may be incompatible with the cartridge and a different model of device will possibly need to be used. Before spending additional money on a second chip reset tool; however, another printer cartridge should be tested with the device. The failure of the chip reset tool LED to illuminate can also result from the cartridge chip becoming corrupt. Finally, the batteries on the chip reset tool will need to be checked to make sure that they have not died.

Resetting Epson Cartridges with Software

Another option to reset older Epson printer cartridges is to use software.  The SSC Service Utility is one popular option that is released as freeware is produced to work directly with the chip in Epson Stylus printer cartridges. Although the utility supports more than 100 models of Epson printer, it may not work with newer printer cartridges. The application will support resetting or rewriting Epson chips and can freeze or reset the internal ink counters. It also supports the hot swapping of cartridges.

Buying Non-OEM Refill Cartridges

Another alternative for consumers who don’t have the time to manually reset and refill their Epson printer cartridges is to purchase non-OEM refills. These cartridges come with automatic reset chips attached and normally support several refills before a new cartridge is required to be purchased by the consumer.