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    • Hot Water Circulators

      Hot Water Circulators

      A hot water circulator (circulator pump) is a device that circulates hot water through a house’s pipes so that hot water is always instantly available. In traditional one-way plumbing systems, water is run through a hot water heater and directed through the pipes towards the taps whenever a tap is turned on. When a tap

    • What Are Bucky Balls Used For?

      What Are Bucky Balls Used For?

      A bucky ball is a fullerene molecule which is any molecule that is made up entirely of carbon. Specifically, a bucky ball is a spherical fullerene while the cylindrical fullerene is called a carbon nanotube. They were discovered in 1985 and are referred to, chemically, as C60. When they were discovered, it expanded the number

    • What Are the Four Dimensions?

      What Are the Four Dimensions?

      The four dimensions are concepts in mathematics to describe different shapes. It is easy to understand a first dimension, second dimension and third dimension shape. All things are 3D in the world, but images can be 2D. A first dimension is as easy as a line. However, what is the fourth dimension? The fourth dimension

    • What Does Potassium do for the Body?

      What Does Potassium do for the Body?

      Potassium is an essential mineral that the body uses to perform various functions. The body naturally regulates the amount of potassium in the body to keep it in working order. This is done by the kidneys, the bowels and even natural processes such as sweating. Eating a diet which incorporates the recommended amount of potassium supplementation is best

    • Dielectric Constant

      Dielectric Constant

      A dielectric constant measures the extent that a material concentrates electrostatic flux and is also known as the relative static permittivity, static dielectric constant, and relative dielectric constant. It is essential when determining if a substance can be used in a capacitor or various chemistry and physics applications. A material’s dielectric constant value must be

    • Pharming

      Pharming

      Pharming is a process whereby plants and animals are genetically modified to become carriers of genes that stimulate the production of substances that have useful pharmaceutical applications. Thus, the term pharming is actually a play on the words pharmaceuticals and farming. To explain the process in simple terms, a foreign gene is introduced into the

    • Metal in Microwave

      Metal in Microwave

      When looking at a microwave, one of the things they often times see is a metal rack in there which causes confusion. However, people have always been taught that putting metal in the microwave is incredibly dangerous and can destroy the microwave. The question that they ask, then, is: why can't I put aluminum foil,

    • What Are the Five States of Matter?

      What Are the Five States of Matter?

      There are five states of matter that occur when physical forces are applied to them. These states are fairly easy to understand when their physical properties are observed. Depending on the type of matter that is being dealt with, the state of the matter may be more difficult to reach when applying these physical stressors. The best way

    • Fluorescence Spectroscopy

      Fluorescence Spectroscopy

      In the field of spectroscopy, fluorescence can be analyzed from a sample of material through a special form of electromagnetic spectroscopy. This fluorescence spectroscopy uses a beam of light that is tailored for the type of fluorescence detection needed in compounds. The usual option is an ultraviolet light that is used to excite electrons in

    • How Fiber Optic Lights Work

      How Fiber Optic Lights Work

      Fiber optic lines, which can be as thin as a piece of human hair, are made of strands of glass that are optically pure. They are used to transmit light signals, and have the ability to carry these signals over long distances. How is Light Transmitted Through Fiber Optics? The process by which light is

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