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    • CLEC (Competitive Local Exchange Carrier)

      CLEC (Competitive Local Exchange Carrier)

      A CLEC, or Competitive Local Exchange Carrier, is a type of telecommunications provider that was formed after the breakup of AT&T. CLECs are usually smaller telecommunications providers that compete with ILECs, or Incumbent Local Exchange Carriers, which were already in place before AT&T’s separation. While CLECs generally provide the same services as ILECS for less,

    • PBX (Private Branch eXchange)

      PBX (Private Branch eXchange)

      A PBX (Private Branch Exchange) is a small telephone switch that a company or organization owns. These organizations purchase PBXs to reduce the total number of telephone lines they need to lease from the telephone company. Without a PBX, a company has to lease one telephone line for every employee with a telephone. With a

    • 3GP


      3GP is the standard used today on the 3G mobile phones. It is distinguished in two different standards; the 3GPP, which is used on GSM-based phones and have the file extension, .3gp. There is also the 3GPP2, which is for CDMA-based phones, and have the file extension .3g2. These two standards are MPEG-4 and H.263

    • How Do Cell Phones Work?

      How Do Cell Phones Work?

      As technology has improved over the past few decades, cell phones have only gotten better and better.Though most people do not stop to consider the idea, it is still an amazing feat even today that what was once only an idea presented in movies and novels, has now become our number one modern-day communication device.

    • DTMF (Dual-Tone Multi-Frequency)

      DTMF (Dual-Tone Multi-Frequency)

      DTMF tones, or Dual-Tone Multi-Frequency signaling, are audible tones that are used by touch-tone telephones to identify which number key was pushed by the operator. DTMF tones have been used since 1963 and are used by all standard touch-tone telephones in the United States as well as in many other countries around the world. DTMF

    • UMTS (Universal Mobile Telecommunications System)

      UMTS (Universal Mobile Telecommunications System)

      UMTS is an abbreviation for Universal Mobile Telecommunications System. It is one of the third-generation (3g) cell phone technologies quickly developing today. UTMS is also referred to as the 3GSM so as to emphasize the coalition between 3G technology and GSM standard. In theory, the UTMS, using W-CDMA, is supposed to be able to transfer

    • Red Box

      Red Box

      When a coin is inserted into a payphone, the payphone emits a set of tones to ACTS (Automated Coin Toll System). Red boxes work by fooling ACTS into believing you have actually put money into the phone. The red box simply plays the ACTS tones into the telephone microphone. ACTS hears those tones, and allows

    • Forward and Reverse Channels

      Forward and Reverse Channels

      Forward and reverse channels refer to a number of frequencies that are used by a telecommunications broadcast system in order for a telephone tower and a cellular telephone to communicate with each other. A forward channel refers to the frequencies used by a telephone tower to communicate with all nearby cellular phones. Contrastingly, a reverse

    • MTSO: Mobile Telephone Switching Office

      MTSO: Mobile Telephone Switching Office

      The Mobile Telephone Switching Office, or MTSO, is a system that automatically keeps track of a cell phone user’s relative signal by monitoring readings from cell phone towers near the user. MTSO systems also automatically switch a cell phone’s service from one cell phone tower to another depending on which tower will provide the user

    • Caller-ID


      Calling Number Delivery (CND), better known as Caller ID, is a telephone service intended for residential and small business customers. It allows the called Customer Premises Equipment (CPE) to receive a calling party's directory number and the date and time of the call during the first 4 second silent interval in the ringing cycle. Caller-ID

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