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    • Disassembler


      A disassembler is a software that is able to convert an executable language into an assembly language, allowing users to view the individual commands that make a program work. A disassembler is ideal for programming applications because it can be useful when a programmer is attempting to create a similar program to one he/she already

    • Race Condition

      Race Condition

      A race condition occurs when multiple processes access and manipulate the same data concurrently, and the outcome of the execution depends on the particular order in which the access takes place. A race condition is of interest to a hacker when the race condition can be utilized to gain privileged system access. Consider the following

    • How to Declare a Constant in Java

      How to Declare a Constant in Java

      Java does not directly support constants. However, a static final variable is effectively a constant. The static modifier causes the variable to be available without loading an instance of the class where it is defined. The final modifier causes the variable to be unchangeable. Ex: public static final int FOUNDING_YEAR = 2001; Naming Standards for

    • Overloading Binary Operators

      Overloading Binary Operators

      Binary operators can be overloaded in a similar manner as unary operators. We should note the following features of an operator function for a binary operator: It receives only one class type argument explicitly, in case of a member function. For a friend function, two class types are received as arguments. It returns a class

    • Postfix


      The sum of X and Y is written as X+Y where + is the operator while X and Y are the operands. We have always learnt to write the sum of two numbers as X + Y; this notation is know as infix. Here, we’ll be talking about the postfix notation of representing arithmetic operations.

    • Format String Vulnerability

      Format String Vulnerability

      To understand what a format string vulnerability is, you first need to know what a format string is. A format string is a way of telling the C compiler how it should format numbers when it prints them. Format Strings in C In the C programming language there are a number of functions which accept

    • How to Find Security Vulnerabilities in Source Code

      How to Find Security Vulnerabilities in Source Code

      The original, and still the best, method for finding security vulnerabilities in source code is to read and understand the source code. Source code security vulnerabilities will vary between languages and platforms. Items to look for in C code include: Potential vulnerability Function calls to examine for vulnerabilities Buffer overflows gets(), scanf(), sprintf(), strcat(), strcpy()

    • Type Conversion – Class to Basic Type

      Type Conversion – Class to Basic Type

      The constructor handles the task of converting basic types to class types very well. But you cannot use constructors for converting class types to basic data types. Instead, you can define an overloaded casting operator that can be used to convert a class data type into a basic data type. The general form of an

    • Java Operators

      Java Operators

      Java Operator Operator Description [ ] Array index () Method call . Member access ++ Prefix or postfix increment — Prefix or postfix decrement + – Unary plus, minus ~ Bitwise NOT ! Boolean (logical) NOT (type) Type cast new Object creation * / % Multiplication, division, remainder + – Addition, subtraction + String concatenation

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