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    • Java Data Types

      Java Data Types

      Data types in the Java programming language are basically divided into two groups – primitive data types and object references. A primitive data type is a basic building block and has full built-in support. Many other languages also support composite data types, which are build on a combination of primitive data types and may or

    • JNI (Java Native Interface)

      JNI (Java Native Interface)

      The JNI (Java Native Interface) is a layer of Java that permits code executing or running in the JVM (Java Virtual Machine) to invoke and to be called by native libraries and applications written in other languages. The JNI is most commonly used with the C++, C, and Assembly programming languages. Typically, code developers will

    • Type Conversion – Class to Basic Type

      Type Conversion – Class to Basic Type

      The constructor handles the task of converting basic types to class types very well. But you cannot use constructors for converting class types to basic data types. Instead, you can define an overloaded casting operator that can be used to convert a class data type into a basic data type. The general form of an

    • Race Condition

      Race Condition

      A race condition occurs when multiple processes access and manipulate the same data concurrently, and the outcome of the execution depends on the particular order in which the access takes place. A race condition is of interest to a hacker when the race condition can be utilized to gain privileged system access. Consider the following

    • How to Enable JavaScript

      How to Enable JavaScript

      JavaScript is the most widely used client-side scripting language. Almost all websites these days make use of JavaScript directly or via 3rd-party frameworks like JQuery, Prototype, Bootstrap, MooTools, YahooGUI, etc. JavaScript is mostly used for advance web functionality like validations, animation, Ajax-based calling, making flexible interfaces, etc. Therefore, it is important to make sure that

    • What is PLC Programming?

      What is PLC Programming?

      PLC (Programmable Logic Controller) programming allows a computer to automate mechanical or electrical processes for machinery, lighting, or assembly line control actions. Over the past two decades, PLC programming has been used in a number of industries. The PLC’s design allows it to take multiple inputs and provide various outputs. A PLC device is also

    • Type Conversion – Basic to Class Type

      Type Conversion – Basic to Class Type

      The conversion from basic to user defined data types can be done using constructors. Consider the following constructor: .cf { font-family: Lucida Console; font-size: 9pt; color: black; background: white; } .cl { margin: 0px; } .cb1 { color: green; } .cb2 { color: blue; } .cb3 { color: maroon; }   String :: String(char *a)

    • Depth First Search Algorithm

      Depth First Search Algorithm

      A DFS algorithm, as the name implies, is used to search deeper in the graph, whenever possible. The edges are explored, out of the most recently discovered vertex v that still has unexplored edges leaving it. When all of v's edges have been explored, the search backtracks to explore edges leaving the vertex from which

    • Java Loops – For, While, and Do

      Java Loops – For, While, and Do

      Java supports three types of loops: For, While, and Do. The Java For Loop The Java for loop is a looping construct which continually executes a block of statements over range of values. Java for Loop Syntax The syntax of a for loop in Java is: for (initialization; termination; increment) { statement } Example Java

    • Display Messages using Flashdata in CodeIgniter

      Flashdata is a functionality in the CodeIgniter framework that lets you make required data available for the next server request. It makes use of session, but unlike normal session behavior, the passed data is available only for the next server request and is automatically cleared thereafter. Therefore, Flashdata can be very useful in displaying notifications

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