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    • Circular Queue

      Circular Queue

      The difficulty of managing front and rear in an array-based non-circular queue can be overcome if we treat the queue position with index 0 as if it comes after the last position (in our case, index 9), i.e., we treat the queue as circular. Note that we use the same array declaration of the queue.

    • How to Find Security Vulnerabilities in Source Code

      How to Find Security Vulnerabilities in Source Code

      The original, and still the best, method for finding security vulnerabilities in source code is to read and understand the source code. Source code security vulnerabilities will vary between languages and platforms. Items to look for in C code include: Potential vulnerability Function calls to examine for vulnerabilities Buffer overflows gets(), scanf(), sprintf(), strcat(), strcpy()

    • Race Condition

      Race Condition

      A race condition occurs when multiple processes access and manipulate the same data concurrently, and the outcome of the execution depends on the particular order in which the access takes place. A race condition is of interest to a hacker when the race condition can be utilized to gain privileged system access. Consider the following

    • How to Enable Java

      How to Enable Java

      The Java Virtual Machine (JVM) is a collection of software programs and data modules that forms part of the Java and Java 2 platforms. JVM works across all platforms and it alters Java bytecode into machine understandable code and executes it. It acts as a clone of a Java processor allowing Java bytecode to be

    • Java Data Types

      Java Data Types

      Data types in the Java programming language are basically divided into two groups – primitive data types and object references. A primitive data type is a basic building block and has full built-in support. Many other languages also support composite data types, which are build on a combination of primitive data types and may or

    • How to Enable JavaScript

      How to Enable JavaScript

      JavaScript is the most widely used client-side scripting language. Almost all websites these days make use of JavaScript directly or via 3rd-party frameworks like JQuery, Prototype, Bootstrap, MooTools, YahooGUI, etc. JavaScript is mostly used for advance web functionality like validations, animation, Ajax-based calling, making flexible interfaces, etc. Therefore, it is important to make sure that

    • Depth First Search Algorithm

      Depth First Search Algorithm

      A DFS algorithm, as the name implies, is used to search deeper in the graph, whenever possible. The edges are explored, out of the most recently discovered vertex v that still has unexplored edges leaving it. When all of v's edges have been explored, the search backtracks to explore edges leaving the vertex from which

    • Java Loops – For, While, and Do

      Java Loops – For, While, and Do

      Java supports three types of loops: For, While, and Do. The Java For Loop The Java for loop is a looping construct which continually executes a block of statements over range of values. Java for Loop Syntax The syntax of a for loop in Java is: for (initialization; termination; increment) { statement } Example Java

    • Random Number Vulnerability

      Random Number Vulnerability

      Computers are deterministic and are therefore predictable. Computers cannot, in and of themselves, generate truly random numbers. In the absence of outside input, computers can only create pseudo-random numbers.  In the words of John Von Neumann, “Anyone attempting to produce random numbers by purely arithmetic means is, of course, in a state of sin.” A

    • Constructors that Allocate Memory Dynamically

      Constructors that Allocate Memory Dynamically

      Constructors can be used to initialize member objects as well as allocate memory. This can allow an object to use only that amount of memory that is required immediately. This memory allocation at run-time is also known as dynamic memory allocation. The new operator is used for this purpose. Sample Program The program below shows

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