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  • Network Layer

    • Frame vs Packet

      Frame vs Packet

      A packet and a frame are both packages of data moving through a network. A packet exists at Layer 3 of the OSI Model, whereas a frame exists at Layer 2 of the OSI Model. Layer 2 is the Data Link Layer. The best known Data Link Layer protocol is Ethernet. Layer 3 is the

    • Subnet Masks

      Subnet Masks

      A subnet mask allows users to identify which part of an IP address is reserved for the network and which part is available for host use. By looking at the IP address alone, especially now with classless inter-domain routing, users cannot tell which part of the address is which. Adding the subnet mask or netmask

    • Collision Domain

      Collision Domain

      A computer network can be segmented physically and logically. A collision domain is one of the logical network segments in which the data packets can collide with each other. One of the most common protocols used when referring to a collision domain is the Ethernet protocol. Collision domains are often referred to as ‘Ethernet segments.’

    • Subnetting

      Subnetting

      Subnetting is the process of breaking down an IP network into smaller sub-networks called “subnets.” Each subnet is a non-physical description (or ID) for a physical sub-network (usually a switched network of host containing a single router in a multi-router network). In many cases, subnets are created to serve as physical or geographical separations similar

    • NAT (Network Address Translation)

      NAT (Network Address Translation)

      NAT (Network Address Translation) is a technique for preserving scarce Internet IP addresses. Why NAT? The current Internet uses IP addresses in the form xxx.xxx.xxx.xxx. A sample IP address might be 202.187.4.212. Because of the way these IP addresses are allocated, there started to be a shortage of available IP addresses. The current IP (Internet

    • Routing Software

      Routing Software

      Most networks currently run on hardware-based routers from vendors like Cisco, Foundry, and Juniper. Computing power has advanced to the point where this is not necessary. General purpose computing platforms can replace these expensive dedicated hardware routers. These software routing platforms usually run on some version of free or inexpensive Unix. These are a few

    • IP Address

      IP Address

      An IP (Internet Protocol) address is a unique address that different computers on a computer network use to identify and communicate with one another. An IP address is used as an identifier to find electronic devices connected to one another on a network. Therefore, each device in the network must have its own unique address.

    • ICMP (Internet Control Message Protocol)

      ICMP (Internet Control Message Protocol)

      ICMP is the Internet Control Message Protocol. ICMP is a complementary protocol to IP (Internet Protocol). Like IP, ICMP resides on the Network Layer of the OSI Model. ICMP is designed for sending control and test messages across IP networks. Unlike the Transport Layer protocols TCP (Transmission Control Protocol) and UDP (User Datagram Protocol) which

    • Broadcast Domain

      Broadcast Domain

      A broadcast domain is a logical part of a network (a network segment) in which any network equipment can transmit data directly to other equipment or device without going through a routing device (assuming the devices share the same subnet and use the same gateway; also, they must be in the same VLAN). A more

    • MPLS (Multi Protocol Label Switching)

      MPLS (Multi Protocol Label Switching)

      MPLS stands for Multi Protocol Label Switching. The MPLS is often referred to as the layer in between the Data Link and Network layers because of where it operates. The MPLS serves as a method to forward packets of data easily by using labels. What are the Data Link and Network layers? In the seven-layer

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