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  • Network Layer

    • NAT (Network Address Translation)

      NAT (Network Address Translation)

      NAT (Network Address Translation) is a technique for preserving scarce Internet IP addresses. Why NAT? The current Internet uses IP addresses in the form xxx.xxx.xxx.xxx. A sample IP address might be 202.187.4.212. Because of the way these IP addresses are allocated, there started to be a shortage of available IP addresses. The current IP (Internet

    • 192.168

      192.168

      The Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) has allocated three IP address ranges that are to be exclusively used for private Internet networks: 10.0.0.0 – 10.255.255.255 (10/8 prefix) 172.16.0.0 – 172.31.255.255 (172.16/12 prefix) 192.168.0.0 – 192.168.255.255 (192.168/16 prefix) The first block “10.0.0.0 – 10.255.255.255” is referred to as the 24-bit block, the second “172.16.0.0 – 172.31.255.255”

    • IP Address Conflict

      IP Address Conflict

      An IP (or Internet Protocol) address conflict occurs when two different systems on the same subnet are assigned or otherwise have their network interface configured to use the same IP address. It is possible to have two systems on different subnets configured with the same IP address, but not have a conflict occur due to

    • Static Route

      Static Route

      A static route is one that a network administrator creates manually. The opposite of a static route is a dynamic route. Dynamic routes are created by routing protocols. Static routes have advantages and disadvantages when compared to dynamic routes. Advantages of Static Routes: Easy to configure No routing protocol overhead Disadvantages of Static Routes: Network

    • Frame vs Packet

      Frame vs Packet

      A packet and a frame are both packages of data moving through a network. A packet exists at Layer 3 of the OSI Model, whereas a frame exists at Layer 2 of the OSI Model. Layer 2 is the Data Link Layer. The best known Data Link Layer protocol is Ethernet. Layer 3 is the

    • Collision Domain

      Collision Domain

      A computer network can be segmented physically and logically. A collision domain is one of the logical network segments in which the data packets can collide with each other. One of the most common protocols used when referring to a collision domain is the Ethernet protocol. Collision domains are often referred to as ‘Ethernet segments.’

    • QoS (Quality of Service)

      QoS (Quality of Service)

      QoS stands for Quality of Service. QoS is a generic name for a set of algorithms which attempt to provide different levels of quality to different types of network traffic. Queuing One method of implementing QoS is to utilize some sort of advanced queuing algorithm. Simple networks process traffic with a FIFO (First In –

    • What is PCAP?

      What is PCAP?

      PCAP (Packet Capture) is a protocol for wireless Internet communication that allows a computer or device to receive incoming radio signals from another device and convert those signals into usable information. It allows a wireless device to convert information into radio signals in order to transfer them to another device. PCAP runs in the background

    • BOOTP

      BOOTP

      BOOTP is the Bootstrap Protocol. The BOOTP protocol is utilized by diskless workstations to gather configuration information from a network server. The information provided by the BOOTP protocol is: The IP address which should be utilized by the diskless workstation The IP address of a server which will provide an Operating System image for the

    • Subnetting

      Subnetting

      Subnetting is the process of breaking down an IP network into smaller sub-networks called “subnets.” Each subnet is a non-physical description (or ID) for a physical sub-network (usually a switched network of host containing a single router in a multi-router network). In many cases, subnets are created to serve as physical or geographical separations similar

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