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  • Network Layer

    • NAT (Network Address Translation)

      NAT (Network Address Translation)

      NAT (Network Address Translation) is a technique for preserving scarce Internet IP addresses. Why NAT? The current Internet uses IP addresses in the form xxx.xxx.xxx.xxx. A sample IP address might be 202.187.4.212. Because of the way these IP addresses are allocated, there started to be a shortage of available IP addresses. The current IP (Internet

    • 192.168.2.1 – What Are its Uses and Why is it Important?

      192.168.2.1 – What Are its Uses and Why is it Important?

      192.168.2.1 is a private IP address commonly used by the SMC and Belkin router manufacturers for device setup and troubleshooting. SMC and Belkin specialize in manufacturing home networking equipment that competes with Netgear, D-Link, and Linksys brands in the marketplace. The Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) does not grant exclusive use of the IP address

    • Subnet Masks

      Subnet Masks

      A subnet mask allows users to identify which part of an IP address is reserved for the network and which part is available for host use. By looking at the IP address alone, especially now with classless inter-domain routing, users cannot tell which part of the address is which. Adding the subnet mask or netmask

    • IP (Internet Protocol)

      IP (Internet Protocol)

      The primary network communications protocol used on networks today is the IP (Internet Protocol). IP relays or transfers network packets, also known as datagrams, to destinations on local networks or across the public Internet. It defines the structures which encapsulate information as well as the legal addressing methods used to identify the source and destination

    • Routing

      Routing

      Routing is the process of moving packets through an internetwork, such as the Internet. Routing actually consists of two separate, but related, tasks: Defining paths for the transmission of packets through an internetwork. Forwarding packets based upon the defined paths. Routing takes place in IP networks, based on IP routing tables and its entries. The

    • QoS (Quality of Service)

      QoS (Quality of Service)

      QoS stands for Quality of Service. QoS is a generic name for a set of algorithms which attempt to provide different levels of quality to different types of network traffic. Queuing One method of implementing QoS is to utilize some sort of advanced queuing algorithm. Simple networks process traffic with a FIFO (First In –

    • What is an L2TP?

      What is an L2TP?

      L2TP (Layer Two Tunneling Protocol) defines an extension to PPTP (Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol) that an ISP (Internet Service Provider) uses to allow a VPN (Virtual Private Network) to operate. L2TP combines L2F from Cisco Systems’ optimum features and PPTP from Microsoft into a single protocol. L2TP’s two primary components are the LNS (L2TP Network Server)

    • IP Address

      IP Address

      An IP (Internet Protocol) address is a unique address that different computers on a computer network use to identify and communicate with one another. An IP address is used as an identifier to find electronic devices connected to one another on a network. Therefore, each device in the network must have its own unique address.

    • VRRP (Virtual Router Redundancy Protocol)

      VRRP (Virtual Router Redundancy Protocol)

      VRRP stands for Virtual Router Redundancy Protocol. The VRRP is a commonly used method to avoid network outages during important data transfers. Data transfer can be highly susceptible to failure when sent by a single router network. To combat this problem, VRRP creates a virtual connection between routers within the same network and ties them

    • Collision Domain

      Collision Domain

      A computer network can be segmented physically and logically. A collision domain is one of the logical network segments in which the data packets can collide with each other. One of the most common protocols used when referring to a collision domain is the Ethernet protocol. Collision domains are often referred to as ‘Ethernet segments.’

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