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  • Network Layer

    • Routing Tables

      Routing Tables

      A routing table is a grouping of information stored on a networked computer or network router that includes a list of routes to various network destinations. The data is normally stored in a database table and in more advanced configurations includes performance metrics associated with the routes stored in the table. Additional information stored in

    • Subnetting

      Subnetting

      Subnetting is the process of breaking down an IP network into smaller sub-networks called “subnets.” Each subnet is a non-physical description (or ID) for a physical sub-network (usually a switched network of host containing a single router in a multi-router network). In many cases, subnets are created to serve as physical or geographical separations similar

    • 127.0.0.1 – What Are its Uses and Why is it Important?

      127.0.0.1 – What Are its Uses and Why is it Important?

      127.0.0.1 is the loopback Internet protocol (IP) address also referred to as the “localhost.” The address is used to establish an IP connection to the same machine or computer being used by the end-user. The same convention is defined for computer’s that support IPv6 addressing using the connotation of ::1. Establishing a connection using the

    • VRRP (Virtual Router Redundancy Protocol)

      VRRP (Virtual Router Redundancy Protocol)

      VRRP stands for Virtual Router Redundancy Protocol. The VRRP is a commonly used method to avoid network outages during important data transfers. Data transfer can be highly susceptible to failure when sent by a single router network. To combat this problem, VRRP creates a virtual connection between routers within the same network and ties them

    • How to Change an IP Address

      How to Change an IP Address

      The IP address is a logical address assigned to a network card in order to establish communication over the network and identify the computer over it. Network administrators usually assign IP addresses based on certain rules and regulations. Reasons to Change an IP Address Even if someone is part of a small network routed through

    • IP (Internet Protocol)

      IP (Internet Protocol)

      The primary network communications protocol used on networks today is the IP (Internet Protocol). IP relays or transfers network packets, also known as datagrams, to destinations on local networks or across the public Internet. It defines the structures which encapsulate information as well as the legal addressing methods used to identify the source and destination

    • Routing Software

      Routing Software

      Most networks currently run on hardware-based routers from vendors like Cisco, Foundry, and Juniper. Computing power has advanced to the point where this is not necessary. General purpose computing platforms can replace these expensive dedicated hardware routers. These software routing platforms usually run on some version of free or inexpensive Unix. These are a few

    • How to Use Ping to Test a Network

      How to Use Ping to Test a Network

      The following steps elaborate on how to use the Ping utility to perform progressively more distant tests on network connectivity. Ping the Loopback Address – Type Ping 127.0.0.1 Successfully pinging the loopback address verifies that TCP/IP is both installed and configured correctly on the local client. If the loopback test fails, it means IP stack

    • IP Address

      IP Address

      An IP (Internet Protocol) address is a unique address that different computers on a computer network use to identify and communicate with one another. An IP address is used as an identifier to find electronic devices connected to one another on a network. Therefore, each device in the network must have its own unique address.

    • What is NetBEUI?

      What is NetBEUI?

      NetBEUI (NetBIOS Extended User Interface) is an extended version of NetBIOS, the primary software that allows individual computers to communicate within a given local area network. While NetBIOS itself is most often used to transfer pictures, documents, videos, or other files from one computer to another, NetBEUI is responsible for arranging the actual information in

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