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    • How to Kill a Process in Unix

      How to Kill a Process in Unix

      A computer process is a computer program that is executing and has a unique process identification or PID. On the Unix Operating System (OS), a process may be running in the background, foreground, or be in a suspended state. On Unix, the OS shell will not return the prompt to the end-user until the current

    • Restricted Shells

      Restricted Shells

      A restricted shell is a Unix shell that has been modified to allow the Unix shell user to do fewer things than a normal shell would allow him to do. It may allow the user to run only certain programs. It may stop the user from changing directories. Many sites run their own restricted shells

    • How to Find Out CPU Utilization in UNIX

      How to Find Out CPU Utilization in UNIX

      Keeping track of your CPU’s performance is extremely important. In UNIX, you can accomplish this task by using the system utilities and commands. For those who would like to find out their CPU utilization, one command is extremely important. It is called SAR – System Activity Reporter. The SAR commands make accessing CPU performance quite

    • How to Use the Unix Sort Command

      How to Use the Unix Sort Command

      The Unix sort command is a command for the Unix family of operating systems. It is designed to sort whatever information you give it. The command can be used for a variety of purposes, but it is most frequently employed when there are a number of different files which need to be ordered in some

    • Linux Restricted Shell

      Linux Restricted Shell

      The idea of a restricted shell first arose in the Unix operating system in order to prevent the end-user from doing as many operations as a normal shell allows. A restricted shell lets the administrator control the end-user’s computing environment by only permitting explicitly used commands to be used. The Linux restricted shell (rssh) is

    • UMASK

      UMASK

      umask is a Unix shell built-in command that automatically sets file permissions on newly created files. The umask command can be confusing to use because it does work as a mask. In other words, the user sets the permissions that he/she does not want in the umask. To calculate permissions that will result from specific

    • Basic Unix Commands

      Basic Unix Commands

      The total number of Unix commands is immense. No normal user or system administrator would ever need to know them all. The Unix commands available to you will vary based upon several factors: The version of Unix you are using (FreeBSD, Linux, Solaris, AIX, HP-UX, OpenBSD, etc…) The Unix shell you are using (sh, csh,

    • How to Audit Unix Passwords

      How to Audit Unix Passwords

      To audit Unix passwords, you must compare each encrypted password in the Unix password file with a set of potential encrypted passwords. These potential encrypted passwords are created by encrypting every password in a list of plaintext passwords. This is an example of a dictionary attack. The Unix passwd File Location The traditional location for

    • Where to Download Unix

      Where to Download Unix

      Free derivatives of Unix can be easily downloaded via the Internet. This sets Unix apart from other proprietary operating systems like Microsoft Windows. The different Unix versions and Unix-like operating systems available for download include FreeBSD, OpenBSD, Red Hat Fedora Linux, Debian Linux, Ubuntu Linux, and Sun Solaris. Those who are new to Unix or

    • How to Backup Unix

      How to Backup Unix

      Most Unix systems come with several basic backup software options, including dd, cpio, tar, and dump. If the basic backup software included with Unix does not meet your needs, you may want to look at some of the more comprehensive software packages designed to backup Unix and Windows systems. Built-in Unix Backup Software tar tar

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