Basic Unix Commands

Basic Unix Commands

The total number of Unix commands is immense. No normal user or system administrator would ever need to know them all. The Unix commands available to you will vary based upon several factors: The version of Unix you are using (FreeBSD, Linux, Solaris, AIX, HP-UX, OpenBSD, etc...) The Unix shell you are using (sh, csh, tcsh, ksh, bash, etc...) The packages installed on the system and the way the system is configured Your access level on the system This list of basic Unix commands

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How to Use vi

How to Use vi

The vi editor (visual editor) is one of the oldest and more popular text editors on computers running the Unix Operating System (OS). The vi editor can be used from any computer terminal interfacing with a computer running Unix, since the editor relies on the standard alphabet keys for specific commands. Since vi is not a WYSIWYG (What You See is What You Get) text editor, it does not provide the formatting capabilities word processors do for paragraph indentations, font, and line centering. New

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Linux Restricted Shell

Linux Restricted Shell

The idea of a restricted shell first arose in the Unix operating system in order to prevent the end-user from doing as many operations as a normal shell allows. A restricted shell lets the administrator control the end-user's computing environment by only permitting explicitly used commands to be used. The Linux restricted shell (rssh) is similar, but only a minimum command set is enabled for the end-user. When installed, the default configuration is to remove all access and capabilities until t

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How to Capture a Unix Terminal Session

How to Capture a Unix Terminal Session

One of the best methods to capture a Unix terminal session is to use the `script` command. In this example we start a script session, run a couple of commands, and then use the `exit` command to stop capturing the terminal session: $ script Script started, output file is typescript $ pwd /home/will $ ps PID TT STAT TIME COMMAND 11909 p0 Ss 0:00.05 -bash (bash) 25622 p0 S+ 0:00.01 script 25623 p1 Ss 0:00.01 /usr/local/bin/bash -i 25624 p1 R+ 0:00.00 ps $ exit Script done, output fil

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How to Tell what Shell You’re Using

How to Tell what Shell You’re Using

Whatever operating system you choose, a shell will be an important part of it. A shell is usually defined as software that provides the end user with an interface. In technical terms, the shell is the part of the software that gives you access to the kernel. The term shell is used freely and can mean many things to many people, especially in the computing field. For the most part, however, a shell is regarded as any software that surrounds or is built around any specific component, whether it be

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How to Change Your Shell

How to Change Your Shell

Under some version of Unix, users can use the `chsh` or `passwd -e` commands to edit the shell configured for their account in the passwd file. Under other Unix variants, only the root user can use these commands. Your shell is defined in the last field of the password file.  If you have "root" privileges, you can edit the password file to change your shell.  If you change your shell to an invalid shell, you will not be able to login again to repair your error.  In this example password f

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Where to Find a Unix Tutorial

Where to Find a Unix Tutorial

Unix has many dedicated fans who have written quite a few excellent Unix tutorials for beginning users. Here are a few of the better Unix tutorials: Unix Tutorial for Beginners Unix: The Bare Minimum Introduction to Unix commands Unix Tutorial UNIXhelp for Users Unix Tutorial and Command Reference Unix Tutorial

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Where to Get a Unix Emulator

Where to Get a Unix Emulator

It is very useful to have a Unix emulator installed on your machine to serve as a tool for learning how to use Unix and getting used to its environment. Once you are familiar, you can go ahead and install a full version of Unix. The best Unix emulator for your needs is Cygwin (pronounced ‘sig win’), which is a nearly complete Unix-like environment that can be run on Windows. Cygwin is made to work with all the officially released 32-bit x86 versions of Windows, except Windows CE. The Cygw

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How to Create a Cron Job

How to Create a Cron Job

Unix users write, edit, list, and remove cron jobs using the `crontab` command. `crontab -e` takes users into their default editor to edit their crontab entries. `crontab -l` lists their crontab. `crontab -r` removes their crontab. crontab Security If the cron.allow file exists, then the user must be listed in that file in order to be allowed to use the `crontab` command. If the cron.allow file does not exist but the cron.deny file does, then the user must not be listed in the cron.de

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The History of UNIX

The History of UNIX

UNIX is one of the most important operating systems ever developed. What made Unix stand out in the crowd of countless other operating systems is that it was a competent operating system that was extremely affordable and worked on low cost hardware. Economics definitely played a large part in UNIX's popularity and today it is still known as a low cost solution to running personal computers, network servers or large commercial servers. UNIX was originally created in 1969 at AT&T Bell Labs

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