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    • Authentication Types

      Authentication Types

      What is Authentication Authentication is the process whereby the system identifies legitimate users from unauthorized users. It is the process in which a user identifies his/her self to the system. How effective an authentication process is, is determined by the authentication protocols and mechanisms being used. Windows Server 2003 provides a few different authentication types

    • Microsoft PowerPoint Password Recovery

      Microsoft PowerPoint Password Recovery

      Microsoft PowerPoint documents can utilize two passwords: Password to open Password to modify Password to open The Password to open requires a user to enter a password to view the document. When the user sets a Password to open, the entire Microsoft PowerPoint document is encrypted with the RC4 stream cipher. Password to modify The

    • Global Catalog in Active Directory

      Global Catalog in Active Directory

      Domains and Forests can also share resources available in active directory. These resources are searched by Global Catalog across domains and forests and this search is transparent to user. For example, if you make a search for all of the printers in a forest, this search goes to global catalog server for its query and

    • How to Fix the Unmountable Boot Volume Error Message in Windows XP

      How to Fix the Unmountable Boot Volume Error Message in Windows XP

      A common error that occurs with the Windows XP operating system (OS) that results in a system crash is the unmountable boot volume error message. When this error occurs, it is an indication that the OS is having difficulty starting or booting from the computer’s “C” drive. Due to the Windows XP OS’s maturity, the

    • PCL XL Error

      PCL XL Error

      The PCL XL error is most commonly associated with HP LaserJet printers. The error occurs when several pages are sent from a document to the printer’s print queue. The printer displays this error message if the printer’s driver has become outdated or corrupted from operating system (OS) updates or conflicting third-party software being installed on

    • How to Backup Windows XP Drivers

      How to Backup Windows XP Drivers

      The term driver refers to files that permit hardware and software programs to interface with the Windows Operating System (OS). All hardware components require a driver file in order to work properly with the Windows XP OS unless they are compatible with one of the generic driver files included with the OS. These files are

    • How to Open TCP Ports in Windows

      How to Open TCP Ports in Windows

      Opening TCP ports in Windows may be necessary for certain applications to run correctly. Each application may require a specific port to operate on. While a computer can and does open ports on its own, it may have to be done manually in certain situations. Here is a simple procedure. Step 1. Launch Windows and

    • Securing Remote Access and VPN Servers

      Securing Remote Access and VPN Servers

      Remote Access and VPN Server Security Issues Remote Access Servers (RAS) provides access to the network for remote users. The different types of remote access connections are Dial-in remote access, VPN remote access, and Wireless remote access. Dial-in remote access uses modems, servers running the Routing and Remote Access (RRAS) service, and the Point-to-Point (PPP)

    • DHCP and Remote Access

      DHCP and Remote Access

      DHCP and Remote Access Overview When a remote computer connects to a remote access server (RRAS), it is automatically provided with an IP address when the Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP) connection is established. You can configure the RRAS server to allocate IP addresses to remote clients from: A static range of IP addresses: This method is

    • Forest and Domain Functional Levels

      Forest and Domain Functional Levels

      Domain and forest functional levels provide a means of enabling additional domain and forest-wide Active Directory features, remove outdated backward compatibility in an environment, and improve Active Directory performance and security. In Windows 2000, the terminology for domain functional levels was domain modes. Forests in Windows 2000 have one mode and domains can have the

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