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  • Data Link Layer

    • VLAN (Virtual Local Area Network)

      VLAN (Virtual Local Area Network)

      VLAN (Virtual Local Area Network) is a logical local area network (or LAN) that extends beyond a single traditional LAN to a group of LAN segments, given specific configurations. Since a VLAN is a logical entity, its creation and configuration is done completely in software. How is a VLAN Identified? Since a VLAN is a

    • Broadband over Power Lines

      Broadband over Power Lines

      Broadband over Power Lines, or BPL, refers to the transmission (sending and receiving) of digital data through existing power cables and electricity distribution infrastructures. This can be viewed as a mere variation on using television cables; instead of using television cables, though, power transmission lines are going to be used. The Broadband over Power Lines

    • Ethernet Hub

      Ethernet Hub

      For any two devices to be connected, they need a common place, or a hub, as it is called in the computer world. It basically connects multiple computers together. Most of the hubs available in the market today support Ethernet standards. This is why they are called Ethernet hubs, and are most commonly used in

    • ADSL Modems

      ADSL Modems

      Description of ADSL A special Internet service which is available in many areas is called the Asymmetrical Digital Subscriber Line (ADSL). ADSL connections use existing copper telephone lines to transmit data to and from the ISP. These connections may be limited by proximity to the ISP or the telephone company because the data will lose strength through

    • PPP (Point-to-Point Protocol)

      PPP (Point-to-Point Protocol)

      PPP (Point-to-Point Protocol) is the most widely used method for transporting IP packets over a serial link between the user and the Internet Service Provider (ISP). Although PPP is primarily used over dialup lines, variants such as PPoE (PPP over Ethernet) and PPoA (PPP over ATM) extend PPP to new data-link layer protocols. PPP was

    • Differences Between ISDN and DSL

      Differences Between ISDN and DSL

      Definitions Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN): ISDN is a digital transmission system, which is used to transmit voice and data through copper telephone wires. In other words, it's a circuit-switched data transmission system that is used for voice and data transmission over the wire. Digital Subscriber Line (DSL): DSL is also a digital transmission system

    • DSL Splitter

      DSL Splitter

      A DSL splitter, like a DSL filter, is a device used to prevent interference problems. It filters the low frequencies of the telephone line from the high-frequency ADSL line. However, the installation of a DSL splitter requires the help of a technician to split the main telephone cable into 2 lines unlike a DSL filter

    • MTU (Maximum Transmission Unit)

      MTU (Maximum Transmission Unit)

      The MTU (Maximum Transmission Unit) is the size of the largest datagram that can be sent over a network. If a datagram is larger than an MTU, the datagram must be fragmented into multiple smaller datagrams. Default MTU Sizes Most network technologies have default MTU sizes which may be changed by the network administrator. Network

    • ISDN Modem

      ISDN Modem

      ISDN – otherwise known as integrated services digital network – is a digital phone connection that can transmit data, voice and video over a normal telephone line. It was meant to be a method of transmitting information much faster than a typical analog phone; however, the phone industry was able to survive the arrival of

    • CSMA/CD

      CSMA/CD

      CSMA/CD (Carrier Sense Multiple Access / Collision Detection) is the protocol used in Ethernet networks to ensure that only one network node is transmitting on the network wire at any one time. Carrier Sense means that every Ethernet device listens to the Ethernet wire before it attempts to transmit. If the Ethernet device senses that

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