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  • Data Link Layer

    • ISDN Modem

      ISDN Modem

      ISDN – otherwise known as integrated services digital network – is a digital phone connection that can transmit data, voice and video over a normal telephone line. It was meant to be a method of transmitting information much faster than a typical analog phone; however, the phone industry was able to survive the arrival of

    • DSL (Digital Subscriber Line)

      DSL (Digital Subscriber Line)

      Digital Subscriber Line or Digital Subscriber Loop (DSL) is a type of high-speed Internet technology that enables transmission of digital data via the wires of a telephone network. DSL does not interfere with the telephone line; the same line can be used for both Internet and regular telephone services. The download speed of DSL ranges

    • PPP (Point-to-Point Protocol)

      PPP (Point-to-Point Protocol)

      PPP (Point-to-Point Protocol) is the most widely used method for transporting IP packets over a serial link between the user and the Internet Service Provider (ISP). Although PPP is primarily used over dialup lines, variants such as PPoE (PPP over Ethernet) and PPoA (PPP over ATM) extend PPP to new data-link layer protocols. PPP was

    • DSL Splitter

      DSL Splitter

      A DSL splitter, like a DSL filter, is a device used to prevent interference problems. It filters the low frequencies of the telephone line from the high-frequency ADSL line. However, the installation of a DSL splitter requires the help of a technician to split the main telephone cable into 2 lines unlike a DSL filter

    • How fast is ADSL Speed?

      How fast is ADSL Speed?

      ADSL (Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line) options are available in many locations. The speeds will vary for the service in many ways depending on several factors. The reason why it is called an Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line is simple, as the speed for downloads will be significantly faster than the upload speed. This is because consumer DSL services are

    • ISDN 30

      ISDN 30

      ISDN 30 is a type of Integrated Service Digital Network system that is used for the transmission of voice and data over wires. ISDN 30 is one of the most economical and efficient communication systems. It is used in medium as well as large businesses. Through ISDN 30, business organizations and call centers can get

    • DOCSIS (Data Over Cable Service Interface Specification)

      DOCSIS (Data Over Cable Service Interface Specification)

      Data Over Cable Service Interface Specification (DOCSIS) defines the interface standards for cable modems and supporting equipment involved in high speed data transfer and distribution over cable television system networks. It permits additional high-speed data transfer over an existing cable TV system and is widely used by television operators to offer Internet access through an

    • How Do ADSL Microfilters Work?

      How Do ADSL Microfilters Work?

      ADSL Internet Access Asynchronous Digital Subscriber Line (ADSL) is a broadband Internet option that is commonly available in many locations. Asynchronous only means that the download speeds and the upload speeds are different (with the upload speeds usually being significantly lower) and provides a fast option to browse the web. Internet access through ADSL requires one

    • ARP Cache

      ARP Cache

      The ARP cache is a table that stores mappings between Data Link Layer addresses and Network Layer addresses. The Data Link Layer addresses are usually MAC addresses and the Network Layer addresses are most frequently IP addresses. The Operating System stores the ARP cache in RAM. Displaying the ARP Cache Under most Unix and Microsoft

    • PPP Authentication Protocols

      PPP Authentication Protocols

      Windows Server 2003 and Windows XP support the following PPP authentication protocols: PAP or Password Authentication Protocol The oldest forms of authentication schemes used where the user credential are sent in plain text. This is not the securest form of passing authentication credentials as anybody can use a third party sniffer program and capture these

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