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    • IPsec


      IPSec (IP Security) is a suite of protocols which was designed by Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) to protect data by signing and encrypting data before it is transmitted over public networks. The IETF Request for Comments (RFCs) 2401-2409 defines the IPSec protocols with regard to security protocols, security associations and key management, and authentication

    • ISAKMP


      ISAKMP (Internet Security Association and Key Management Protocol) is a protocol for establishing Security Associations (SA) and cryptographic keys in a internet environment. ISAKMP defines the procedures for authenticating a communicating peer, creation and management of Security Associations, key generation techniques, and threat mitigation (e.g. denial of service and replay attacks). ISAKMP typically utilizes IKE

    • Packet Sniffers

      Packet Sniffers

      Packet sniffing is listening (with software) to the raw network device for interesting packets. When the software sees a packet that fits certain criteria, it logs it to a file. The most common criterion for an interesting packet is one that contains words like “login” or “password.” To packet sniff, obtain or code a packet

    • Packet Fragmentation

      Packet Fragmentation

      Every packet based network has an MTU (Maximum Transmission Unit) size. The MTU is the size of the largest packet that that network can transmit. Packets larger than the allowable MTU must be divided into smaller packets or fragments to enable them to traverse the network. Network Standard MTU Ethernet 1500 Token Ring 4096 Packet

    • Port Scanner

      Port Scanner

      A port scanner is a program which attempts to connect to a list or range of TCP (Transmission Control Protocol) or UDP (User Datagram Protocol) ports on a list or range of IP addresses. Port scanners are used for network mapping and for network security assessments. The first decision to make when running a port

    • Network Attacks

      Network Attacks

      Understanding Network Attacks A network attack can be defined as any method, process, or means used to maliciously attempt to compromise network security. There are a number of reasons that an individual(s) would want to attack corporate networks. The individuals performing network attacks are commonly referred to as network attackers, hackers, or crackers. A few

    • Two Factor Authentication

      Two Factor Authentication

      Two factor authentication is term used to describe any authentication mechanism where more than one thing is required to authentate a user. The two components of two factor authentication are: Something you know Something you have Traditional authentication schemes used username and password pairs to authenticate users. This provides minimal security, because many user passwords

    • Denial of Service (DoS) Attacks

      Denial of Service (DoS) Attacks

      A Denial of Service (DoS) attack is one that attempts to prevent the victim from being able to use all or part of his/her network connection. A denial of service attack may target a user to prevent him/her from making outgoing connections on the network. It may also target an entire organization to either prevent

    • Free Firewall Software

      Free Firewall Software

      Free firewalls have become very common and represent an excellent alternative to commercial firewall packages. Most of these firewalls run under some form of Linux, FreeBSD, or OpenBSD. Many of these free firewalls are front-ends for the lower-level firewall packages which ship with these operating systems, such as pf (Packet Filter), ipf (IPFilter), ipfw (IPFirewall),

    • How Firewall Protection Works

      How Firewall Protection Works

      Firewall protection works by blocking certain types of traffic between a source and a destination. All network traffic has a source, a destination, and a protocol. This protocol is usually TCP, UDP, or ICMP. If this protocol is TCP or UDP, there is a source port and a destination port. Most often the source port

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