A fractal antenna is a diamond-shaped antenna that maximizes the total amount of material within a given amount of space that transmits or receives electromagnetic waves. Fractal antennas do this by making each section of the antenna its own separate dipole. Because of this design, fractal antennas operate at many different frequencies and wavebands, allowing them to be used for a wide variety of applications, most of which can be found in the cellular telephone and microwave communication industries.
How Fractal Antennas Work
Fractal antennas maximize the number of dipoles or cross-sectioned antennas present on the antenna itself. They look like a cross made of metal, with each end meeting at its own dipole. Each side of the cross also has two dipoles meeting before the major dipole while an additional dipole is included on each of the sides after the major dipole. In fact, each dipole also splits off into two other dipoles. Because of their construction, fractal antennas transmit and receive electromagnetic waves at many different frequencies at the same time and can be used for both small scale and large scale applications.
Fractal antennas can be used in cellular phones to provide much better reception than other types of antennas that are only capable of operating on one or a few frequencies. They can also be used as filters for radio signals as well as loads, ground planes, and counterpoises within antenna systems. Fractal antennas are most commonly used for radio broadcast systems and in routers and other wireless Internet devices in order to provide maximum service.
Fractal antennas transmit and receive a multitude of radio frequencies and can do so simultaneously. They are also very compact, allowing them to be transported and installed more efficiently than other types of antennas. Fractal antennas withstand natural conditions better than other types and the military currently use them to resist harsh environments. Additionally, there are many different fractal antenna versions and it can be customized to meet specific requirements.